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After the victory at the end of World War II in 1945, peace did not come to China, following by conflicts between the Chinese Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party for former Japanese occupied areas. Although the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party reached the"Double Tenth Agreement" from the U.S. Ambassador Hurley’s intervention, the two parties did not cease their hostility and conflicts between two parties became even more intense. The U.S. is determined to intervene in China's civil war by exerting its political power, because they believed those conflicts between the Communist Party and Chinese Kuomintang will lead China into a civil war, which is detrimental to the development of U.S. Policy Toward China. When Hurley's dissatisfaction with theU.S. Policy Toward China led him to criticize the U.S. government, making the U.S. government's policy toward China became the target of attacks from both sides of ruling parties and oppositions. As a result, President Harry S. Truman decided to send the highly respected George Catlett Marshall to China in order to mediate in the Chinese civil war. Marshall went to China in December 1946 and returned to the U.S. in January 1947. This year's deployment to China can be divided into two phases, with Marshall's return to the U.S. in March 1946 as the watershed. The first period of Marshall's mission to China was the "honeymoon period", which led to the Cessation of Hostilities Order, The Executive Headquarters Peiping and the Basis for Military Reorganization and for the Integration of the Communist Forces into the Nation Army. However, Marshall failed to address the deep-rooted conflict between the Chinese Kuomintang and the Communist Party, which led to a big fight between the Chinese Kuomintang and the Communist Party over the Manchuria during his return to the U.S. at March 1946. After Marshall's return from the U.S., the situation became increasingly difficult, partly because of Chiang Kai-shek's determination to suppress the Communists by force, and partly because of the Chinese Communists were able to enter the Manchuria with the secret help supported by the Soviet Union. The two sides had their own plans and did not give way to each other. Chiang Kai-shek deceived Marshall into going to Shenyang to supervise and attack Changchun, which broke down the relationship between Marshall,the Republic of China (ROC) government and Chiang Kai-shek. Even with the help of John Leighton Stuart, Marshall's mediation failed to show any improvement and it came to a standstill. Marshall came to his senses that he could no longer mediate, he then turned to encourage third parties in China to take an active part in politics. On the other hand, Marshall also believed that Chinese are responsible for their own country. The final job of Marshall in China is to secure the passage of the 1946 Constitution. In January 1947, Marshall returned to the U.S. from his mission to China and immediately assumed the position of Secretary of State. Due to his experience in China, Marshall had lost his confidence in the ROC government's ability to govern, therefore intended to gradually withdraw U.S. influence from China. As communism swept through Europe, the U.S. was able to re-examine its global strategic layout and under a new strategic mindset, the strategic significance of China was substantially downgraded. At the suggestion of John Carter Vincent and George Frost Kennan, Marshall decided to adopt a novel diplomatic mindset of "emphasizing Europe over Asia and supporting Japan" and abandoned China. Wedemeyer's missionto China in 1947 and the passage of China Aid Act of 1948 were both reluctant moves made by Marshall under external pressure while Marshall's position on China with passive attitude and abandonment remained unchanged.



馬歇爾, 國共內戰, 蔣介石, 美國對華政策, 中美關係, George Catlett Marshall, Chinese Civil War, Chiang Kai-shek, U.S. policy toward China, U.S.-China relations