重度聽損高等教育學生與聽常同儕互動之經驗探究

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2021

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雖然重度聽損孩子能有很好的說話表現,甚至可以通過互動評量的標準化測驗,得到好的評量結果;但在生活上,孩子的聽力和言語上問題仍然存在。例如在人工耳蝸或助聽器的幫助下聽損兒童具備良好的說話能力,可是他們在社交互動中仍然會遇到很多挫折。 研究者為要深入了解重度聽損高等教育學生對於與聽常同儕互動的情形,比如:自我介紹會否主動提出聽損問題、對互動的滿意情形和正負向經驗,以使本研究進步探討其可能的相關因素以及蒐集互動的因應策略。本研究以10位大台北地區重度聽損高等教育學生為對象,採用一對一的半結構式深度訪談法邀請重度聽損高等教育學生分享其與聽常同儕互動的經驗,並以主題分析法歸納成不同的主題。 結果,研究者發現大部分重度聽損生對主動提及聽損的問題是各有不同的作法;在正向經驗方面,重度聽損生從同學主動提出願意幫忙、歡迎詢問的意願以及稱讚他人感受到正向的支持力量等;在負向經驗方面,大部分的經驗可以總括於因為聽不清楚而造成的,如:一直聽不懂對方在說什麼、雞同鴨講、無法玩得開心等。本研究結果顯示負向經驗多於正向經驗,其對人際互動是有影響的。影響與聽常同儕互動的相關因素大致分為四大類,乃是「助聽輔具」、「環境」、「談話者」以及「重度聽損生」。比如:「助聽輔具」的助力有限且昂貴;「環境」的噪音干擾;「談話者」的說話方式、人數、位置以及態度,說話方式像是面對面、講慢點以及聲音適中等。至於三人以上的團體互動對重度聽損生來說是有不方便之處、談話者須位於重度聽損生的優耳一側以便較能清楚的處理聲音、談話者若表現出不耐煩,則可能會影響到重度聽損生的互動心理,不會再提出重複說的請求。 「重度聽損生」的部分,又分為四方面,第一是「心理建設」,有的重度聽損生是因為在啟聰學校以接觸聽損同學為主,故不知如何與聽常同儕互動,也有的是因為對方的情緒是容易受到對方覺得不耐煩而受到影響等。第二是「互動能力」,有的重度聽損生覺得自己的互動能力不夠,無法主動去和聽常同儕互動,第三是因為重度聽損生處理聲音的方式就是「先消化音韻後才思考語音意涵」,最後是遇到共同困難的是「無法同時聽和思考」。本研究也蒐集重度聽損生分享互動的使用預防策略和因應策略,也將本研究的結果進行綜合討論和省思,並提出研究限制與建議。
Although children with severe hearing loss can have good speaking performance, and can even get good evaluation results through standardized tests of interactive evaluation; but in life, the children’s hearing and speech problems still exist. For example, with the help of cochlear implants or hearing aids, children with severe hearing loss have good speaking skills, but they still encounter many frustrations in social interaction. In order to further understand the interaction between students with severe hearing loss in higher education and their peers, such as whether self-introduction would actively raise the problem of hearing loss, their satisfaction with the interaction and their positive and negative experiences, the researchers made progress in this study to explore the possible related factors and to collect the coping strategies for interaction. In this study, ten students with severe hearing loss in higher education in The Greater Taipei area were invited to share their experiences of interaction with their peers by using a semi-structured one-to-one in-depth interview method, and the subjects were summarized into different topics by subject analysis. As a result, the researchers found that the majority of respondents had different approaches to the active mention of hearing loss. In terms of positive experiences, students with severe hearing loss felt positive support from their classmates' willingness to help, willingness to welcome inquiries, and praise others. In terms of negative experiences, most of the experiences can be summarized as the result of not being able to hear clearly, such as not being able to understand what the other person is saying, apples and oranges, not being able to have fun, etc. The results of this study show that the negative experience is more than the positive experience, which has an impact on interpersonal interaction. There are four categories ofrelated factors that influence peer interaction with listeners, namely"hearing aids ", "environment", "speaker" and "student with severe hearing loss". For example, "hearing aids " are limited and expensive. Noise interference from the "environment"; The manner, number, location, and attitude of the conversationalist, such as speaking face to face, speaking slowly, and speaking in a moderate voice. As for the group interaction of more than three people, it is inconvenient for the student with severe hearing loss. The speaker should be located on the superior ear side of the severe hearing loss person so as to process the voice more clearly. If the speaker shows impatience, it may affect the interaction psychology of the student with severe hearing loss and will not make repeated requests. As for the group interaction of more than three people, it is inconvenient for these students with severe hearing loss. The speaker should be located on the superior ear side of these students with severe hearing loss so that they can process the sound more clearly. If the speaker shows impatience, it may affect the interactive psychology of the student with severe hearing loss and they will not make repeated requests. The" student with severe hearing loss " part is divided into four aspects. The first is "psychological construction". Some students with severe hearing loss do not know how to interact with their hearing peers because they are mainly in contact with hearing loss students in the school for the Deaf. Some students with severe hearing loss are easily affected by the other's impatience. The second is "interaction ability". Some students with severe hearing loss think that their interaction ability is not enough to actively interact with their peers. The third reason is that the student with severe hearing loss process the sound by"digesting the sound before thinking about the phonetic meaning", and the last one is the common difficulty that they cannot listen and think at the same time. This study also collects the respondents' interactive use prevention strategies and coping strategies. Then, the researchers will conduct a comprehensive discussion and reflection on the research results and put forward research limitations and suggestions.

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重度聽損, 互動, 自我介紹, 訪談, 助聽輔具, 環境, 談話者, Severe hearing loss, Interact, Self-introduction, Interview, Hearing aids, Environment, Speaker

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