基本職業能力工作樣本編製及其融入教學之行動研究

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2014

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依據本研究目的,分為兩個子研究,研究一為發展學校基本職業能力評估工具,研究二發展驗證基本職業能力評估工具成效的行動研究,以學校基本職業能力評估工具對四名特教學校高一中度智能障礙學生進行職能評估,並探討將職能評估結果融入教學之成效。 研究一以林珮如等人(2012)歸納的「高職階段智能障礙學生職能評估向度與項目」為基礎,逐步發展具實用性、價格低、施測工具容易取得及施測,且以就業能力為基礎、學習與訓練為導向、以工作樣本設計為主,並適用於智能障礙學生的「修訂版學校基本職業能力工作樣本」,共有十一組工作樣本,各含三至四個分測驗。本工具除初步獲得內容效度外,並以臺北市、新北市72名高職階段智能障礙學生為樣本考驗其信效度,結果發現大致上具有良好的建構效度、評分者間信度、再測信度與內部一致性信度。 研究二經由行動研究的歷程,採取以基本職業能力為核心的課程設計行動方案,透過課堂參與觀察、訪談、文件等多元方式蒐集資料,並透過循環修正的動態歷程,以治療師的角色協助教師將職能評估結果融入基本職業能力訓練課程、烘焙職業課程與學生家庭作業中。本研究行動歷程分為三個階段,包括行動前的準備、入班參與試探教學課程與蒐集多元資料,以及與兩位特教教師透過協同教學的合作歷程,發揮動態評量精神,根據評量結果據以規劃課程內容與教學策略,使評量與教學能緊密結合。研究結論如下: 一、學校基本職業能力評估工具具信效度並適用於智能障礙學生 二、以基本職業能力或核心能力為出發點設計課程與家庭作業 三、行動歷程發揮動態評量精神 四、特教團隊合作在行動歷程中發揮重要功能,促進特教工作者的教 學省思與成長 五、家長參與行動並逐漸學習放手 最後,根據研究結果,針對職能評估等相關議題提出未來實務及研究上的建議。
There were two parts of this study. In Study 1, a set of work samples was developed for students with intellectual disabilities. The instrument was used in Study 2 to verify its effectiveness in incorporating assessment results in teaching. In study 1, Modified School Basic Vocational Ability Work Samples, based on Dimensions and Items of Vocational Evaluations for Students with Intellectual Disabilities in Vocational High School (Lin et al., 2012), a practical, low-cost, easily accessible and executable tool was gradually developed. There were totally 11 work samples, which in each had 3 to 4 sub-tests based on employment ability, learning, training, and suitable for students with intellectual disability. This set of work samples had been verified for its validity and reliability based on a sample of 72 students with intellectual disabilities in vocational high schools in Taipei City and New Taipei City. Study 2 was based on the approach of action research methodology to incorporate assessment results into curriculum design and instruction for four Grade 10 students in a special school in Taipei. Through the dynamic process of curriculum-based vocational assessment and teaching, the teachers-therapist team designed vocational instruction courses on basic vocational ability, baking, and homework in the three phase of action research process. According to the results of evaluation, the curriculums and teaching strategies could be designed, meshing evaluation and teaching closely. The conclusions of this study were as followed: 1.The basic vocational ability evaluation tool was reliable and valid, and was suitable for students with intellectual disabilities. 2.Assessment results of students’ vocational core abilities could be used for curriculum and homework design . 3.The process of action displayed the spirit of dynamic assessment. 4.Team work of special education played an important role in the process of action, which encouraged special education employees to reflect and grow. 5.Parents participated in the action process with significant effects for student performance, and gradually learned the way to let their children go further. Finally, according to the results of the study, suggestions were proposed to practices in the future and further researches for vocational evaluation.

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職能評估, 基本職業能力, 智能障礙學生, 工作樣本, 課程本位評量與教學, 職務再設計, 專業團隊, vocational evaluation, basic vocational ability, students with intellectual disabilities, work sample, curriculum-based assessment and instruction, job accommodation, professional collaboration

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