圖像、知識與帝國統治:清代臺灣原住民形象的比較分析

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2015

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圖像一如文字記載,具有影響輿論與形構歷史的作用。筆者著眼於清帝國如何以圖像來詮釋其對臺灣原住民的認知與統治方式。本文中所論及的眾多有關臺灣與臺灣原住民的圖像,對於清帝國來說並非特例的存在,亦非偶然,是屬於帝國建構的一環。 本文中,對於臺番圖風格、母題、構圖與形象建構之分析,一則讓我們重新檢視清帝國對於臺灣原住民的想像,再者得以釐清臺番圖並非是紀實畫作的風俗畫,而是清帝國統整運用了一貫和制式化地構圖方式、繪畫風格進行創作與複製,使得臺番圖像所建構出的臺灣番人生活面貌重複性高,畫面時間軸也凍結在特定的時空內。 透過圖像的流傳、展示與再製,以及不同創作者與讀者接受、再詮釋的循環歷程,其圖像內涵必歷經某種程度的轉化;臺灣的原住民圖像亦必當如此。然而,此一問題的討論,涉及書籍史、出版史與閱讀史的範疇,惟此受限於圖像史料的囿限,目前仍無法再做進一步地討論這些臺灣原住民圖像的製作、流通與傳播的問題,以及圖像繪製的傳統。 諸多畫像中所呈現的臺灣原住民,其存在是為了彰顯大清王朝的帝國榮耀,故畫中的原住民形象不在僅是原住民本身的生活面貌,更有服膺與臣服的一面,實蘊含帝國擴張性強烈的政治特色。可說,清帝國有意利用圖像建構出其所統轄世界的疆界和面貌,因此圖像中所隱含的政治權力是我們必須解讀的「達文西密碼」。再者,我們亦可發現每一種圖像類型的創作,皆與當時特定的歷史事件有所關聯,如此不啻為清帝國文化霸權的展現。
Graphics are just like the written recodes, are capable to affect the opinions and form the history. The author focused on the methods of Qing Dynasty taken to interpret the perception and governance on Taiwanese aborigines through pictures. The pictures of Taiwan and Taiwanese aborigines discussed in the study were neither the special cases nor the coincidences to Qing Dynasty, but an aspect of construction of the country. In terms of the analyses of the style, theme, composition and image of pictures related to aborigines, the study reviewed the perceived images of aborigines to Qing Dynasty on the one hand, and clarified that the pictures were not based on actual events, but, however, utilized the consistent and systematical composition and drawing style to create and duplicate the pictures on the other hand, which caused the high repetitiveness of pictures depicting the routine of Taiwanese aborigines and the frozen timeline in a specific term. Through the spread, exhibition and remaking, as well as the cycle of perceiving and re-interpretation of different authors and viewers, the contents of pictures would definitely varied in certain degree, so did the pictures of Taiwanese aborigines. However, the discussion of the issues involved the scopes of bibliographical, publishing and reading histories; only that the issues of production, channel and spread of the pictures and the traditions of drawing it cannot have a further discussion because of the limited image relics at the moment. Taiwanese aborigines presented in pictures were existed to manifest the glory of Qing Dynasty. The images of aborigines in pictures consisted of not only the livings but also the aspects of obedience, which contained the political element of intensive imperialism. It is fair to say that Qing Dynasty intended to establish the boundaries and appearance of its governed dominion through pictures. Therefore, the implied political power from the pictures is the “Da Vinci Code” we need to understand. In addition, we may notice that each type of the art creation is relevant to the specific historical events at the time. Such phenomenon is the statement of cultural dominance of Qing Dynasty.

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臺灣原住民, 風俗圖, 文化符碼, 職貢圖, 番社采風圖, Taiwanese aborigines, social habits picture, cultural code, Depictions of Tributaries, genre painting of Taiwanese aborigines

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