肌力訓練及肌肉伸展對射箭運動者肩關節姿態之影響

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2015

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前言:射箭為一種古老技能,主要用於狩獵與戰爭,近代奧運將其列為正式比賽項目。射箭可能造成特定的肌肉適應現象而產生圓肩之姿態異常,因此本研究旨在探討透過適當的外旋肌群之肌力訓練以及內旋肌群之伸展訓練是否能夠改善形成圓肩異常姿態之射箭運動者之姿態,並檢驗透過這些姿態矯正訓練後是否會影響射箭時持弓手穩定度之控制。方法:16位有圓肩問題之業餘射箭者分為實驗與控制組,實驗組給予8週特定肌群伸展與肩外轉肌群肌力訓練,控制組則不予以介入,比較兩組介入訓練前後其左右肩之肩峰至床面垂直距離、肩關節內外轉角度、外轉肌群肌力,及姿態評估,並以TSD150A, Biopac記錄8週前後射箭時持弓手前三角肌肌電圖以評估射箭持弓手穩定度,及每位參與者8週內射箭練習時間。結果:實驗組於左右肩之肩峰至床面垂直距離、肩關節外轉角度以及外轉肌群肌力於介入訓練後達到改善,控制組則在左肩外轉肌力達顯著增加。姿態評估方面,實驗組在肱骨內轉相較於控制組有改善,故此訓練介入確實可有改善骨骼異常排列之效果。於持弓手穩定度方面則發現訓練介入不會影響到持弓手穩定度的控制。
Archery is an ancient skill that is used for hunting and battling. However, regular practice of archery may cause specific skeletal-muscular adaptation and may lead archers to form rounded shoulders that are considered the mal-alignment of the skeletons. The purpose of the study was to explore the potential training effects of the external rotators and the internal rotators of shoulders for improving the rounded shoulders. In addition, the influence of these training program to the control of stability of the bow-hand when releasing the arrows were also examined. Methods:Sixteen participants who were evaluated with rounded shoulders were randomly divided into two groups. The distance from the acromion to horizontal plane, the angles of internal and external rotations, the strength of external rotators were measured and postural evaluations about bilateral shoulders were performed for every participant before and after the training period. In addition, the EMG of the anterior deltoid of the arm that holds the bow was collected to examine the stability of bow-hand. The experimental group had 8 weeks training on strengthening the external rotators and stretching the internal rotators for bilateral shoulders. The control group did not have any intervention. Results:The experimental group improved the distance from acromion to horizontal plane, the angle of the external rotations, the strength ofexternal rotators bilaterally after training. The control group also increased their strength of the left external rotator. The result of postural evaluation showed an improvement on the internal rotation from the experimental group after training. The stability of the bow-hand was not affected by the training program.

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射箭, 圓肩, 肌肉適應, archery, rounded shoulders, muscle adaptation

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