19 世紀中葉廣州的漢奸問題

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2022

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本文旨在探討19世紀中葉廣州漢奸問題的發展,及其在當地官府、菁英與外國等不同群體的關係轉變中所發揮的作用,同時,進一步釐清漢奸問題在近代早期中西接觸史中所代表的意義。本文共分三個部分:第一部分從1830年代清廷對鴉片問題的討論和禁煙運動切入,分析廣州與漢奸問題的關係。其次,以林則徐主導推行的漢奸查辦為例,說明廣州官府的漢奸處置態度。最後,以鴉片戰爭期間廣州官府的漢奸對策,及三元里事件後廣州社會所重構的漢奸論述為中心,探討其對廣州社會造成的影響。第二部分說明條約體制與廣州漢奸問題的關係,以及漢奸問題在廣州反入城運動等排外運動中所扮演的角色。第三部分探討英法聯軍之役期間,廣州官府與英、法兩國所建立的「華洋共治」的統治格局,如何影響廣州民眾對漢奸問題的態度轉變。本文指出,19世紀中葉的廣州,由於東亞國際情勢的劇變、清朝的內部問題及地方社會力量的影響力等因素,致使漢奸問題不再只是官府內政的延伸,或是國族主義對「通敵者」之定義的問題,而是牽涉到地方社會中「官」、「紳」、「民」、「夷」等不同群體之間的複雜關係。19世紀中葉廣州的漢奸問題,不僅體現廣州社會面對西力衝擊時所遭逢的困境及其轉變歷程,近代中西接觸所引發出之諸多問題亦已隱含其中。
This thesis is focused on the impact of the han-chien issue on Guangzhou in the mid-19th century and how it change the relationship between the local government, the local elite and foreigners. At the same time, examining the development of the han-chien in Guangzhou in the mid-nineteenth century, and the role of the han-chien issue in the history of East-West contacts in the early modern period.This thesis is divided into three parts: the first part begins with the discussion of the opium problem at the Qing court in the 1830s and explores the importance of han-chien in the anti-smoking movement and the relationship between Guangzhou and the han-chien problem. At the same time, the investigation of han-chien, led by Lin Zexu, is used as an example to illustrate the han-chien policy of the Guangzhou government at this time. Finally, it analyzes the han-chien policies of the Guangzhou government during the Opium War and the han-chien discourse reconstructed by the Guangzhou society after the Sanyuanli Incident to explore its impact on the Guangzhou society. The second part examines the relationship of the treaty system on the han-chien problem in Guangzhou and the role of the han-chien problem in the Anti-foreign enter the city campaign in Guangzhou and other xenophobic movements. Finally, it examines how the cooperation established by the Guangzhou government and the British and French during the Second Opium War affected the attitude of the Guangzhou people toward the han-chien problem.In the mid-nineteenth century , the dramatic changes in the international situation in East Asia, the internal problems of the Qing Dynasty, and the increasing influence of the local community led to the han-chien problem was no longer just an extension of the government's internal affairs or the definition of " traitors " under the nationalism, but involved the complex relationship between different groups in the local community, such as "government," "gentry," "people," and " foreign ". The han-chien problem was not only highlights the plight of Guangzhou society in the face of Western influence and the process of its transformation, but also the many problems arising from the contact between East and West in modern times.

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19世紀中葉, 廣州, 漢奸, 鴉片戰爭, 廣州反入城運動, mid-19th century, Guangzhou, han-chien, First Opium War, Anti-foreign enter the city campaign in Guangzhou

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