外籍勞工休閒參與及休閒效益之研究-以印尼籍外勞為例

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2009

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台灣現正面臨人口老化及少子化的問題,以致來台工作的外藉勞工快速增加,經相關單位的統計發現,以印尼籍外勞增加速度最快,約佔在台外籍勞工的39.60%。本研究方法使用問卷調查法,以在台合法工作之印尼籍外勞為研究對象,了解其在台之休閒參與現況、休閒效益之感受及各人口統計變項與休閒參與、休閒效益之差異性。本研究共計回收有效問卷408份,所得資料使用描述性統計(Descriptive statistics)、信度分析(Reliability analysis)、集群分析法(Cluster Analysis)、獨立樣本t考驗(Independent sample t-test)、單因子變異數分析(One-way ANOVA)、雪費爾事後考驗(Scheffe’s test)、卡方考驗(Chi-square)等統計方法。 研究結果發現:一、印尼籍外勞「幾乎天天作」的休閒活動前3項為:1.聽廣播、音樂;2.沈思、休息;3.打電話與朋友聊天,「幾乎沒作過」的前3項為:1.品酒;2.唱歌;3.約會。二、背景變項與種休閒活動之關聯性中,以「職業」的關聯性最高,「性別」、「來台時間」、「每月休閒花費」居次,之後為「婚動狀況」,而與「年齡」的關聯性最低。三、在休閒效益上,除了可以鍛鍊肌肉的力量與耐力、可以減少體脂肪,使身材健美、可以增進心臟與肺臟的功能等三項「生理效益」平均數略低於3外,其餘之平均分數均在3分以上,顯示其在台從事休閒活動,大都可以感受到正向有益的休閒效益。四、印尼籍外勞從事休閒活動,感受到有「心理效益」的項目最多,「社交效益」次之,而感受到「生理效益」的項目最少。五、在整體休閒效益的體驗上,不同性別與職業有顯著差異存在。本研究發現該國外勞參與休閒活動與「工作環境」及「宗教信仰」有關,建議政府機關就該國外勞之工作環境及宗教特性,妥善增加其休閒參與管道,於安排休閒活動時,能針對不同職業、來台時間、每月休閒花費、性別之需求,提升該國外勞的參與意願,本研究結果期能提供政府機關規劃該國外勞休閒活動、制定外勞政策及供後續研究者之參考。
Population aging and decreasing birth rate have caused the deployment of an increasingly large number of foreign caretakers, factory workers, and seamen in Taiwan. Government statistics have found that among them the number of Indonesian workers has increased the most, accounting for 39.60% of the total number of foreign workers on the island. Adopting a questionnaire survey, this study will investigate the participation of documented Indonesian workers in community leisure activities, as well as the benefits and the correlation between leisure activity participation and benefits. A total of 408 questionnaires were collected. In the treatment of the data, descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, cluster Analysis, independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA, Scheffe’s test, and Chi-square were adopted. Interesting findings were obtained. First, the three most popular leisure activities that Indonesian workers in Taiwan were engaged in “almost on a daily basis” were listening to radio broadcasts and to music stations, meditating and relaxing, and phoning and conversing with friends, while the three activities that they “least engaged in or did not engage in” were drinking, singing, and dating. Second, among the variables studied, “occupation” was found to be the most correlated with leisure activities. Also highly correlated were “gender,” “the length of stay in Taiwan,” and “the amount of leisure spending. Less correlated was “marital status,” and the least correlated was “age.” Third, aside from the three options, namely, the training of muscular strength and endurance, the reduction of body fat and the enhancement of physical form, and the improvement of cardiovascular and lung functions, each of which obtained an average score of below 3, the other leisure benefits options obtained an average score of higher than 3, showing that the Indonesian workers were able to gain positive benefits from participating in leisure activities. Fourth, In the engagement of leisure activities, Indonesian workers obtained “psychological benefits” the most, “social benefits” the next, and “physical benefits” the least. Fifth, there were significant differences in the effects according to gender and occupation. The results showed that the Indonesian workers tended to be “environmentally-“ and “religiously-“ oriented in their leisure activity participation. It is therefore recommended that the government provide more channels in which Indonesian workers can participate in leisure activities in their workplace and consider their religious practices. Moreover, the planning of leisure activities should take into account the needs of the workers in accordance with gender, occupation, the length of time spent in Taiwan, and the amount of leisure spending per month to positively enhance their willingness to participate in leisure activities. The results of this study should hopefully serve as a reference for the government entities in the planning of leisure activities for Indonesian workers, in the formulation of migrant worker policies, and in the implementation of related future research studies.

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外籍勞工, 印尼, 休閒參與, 休閒效益, Migrant workers, Indonesia, leisure participation, benefits of leisure

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