以問題導向學習應用於特殊教育輔助科技課程之實踐成效

Date
2021-06-??
Authors
林珮如
Pei-Ju Lin
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國立台灣師範大學特殊教育學系
National Taiwan Normal University Department of Special Education
Abstract
本研究採行動研究,旨在探討問題導向學習(problem-based learning,PBL)運用於某國立大學特殊教育系輔助科技課程之實踐與成效。本研究參與者為選修輔助科技課程的 39 名四年級學生,共分成 8 組,每組 4-5 人。研究者以行動準備期、課程實踐期、反思與成長期三階段發展 PBL 教學模式,並透過問卷調查、焦點團體訪談、省思日誌、文件等量化與質性多元資料的蒐集,以了解 PBL 運作的歷程與成效。本研究主要將教學案例融入問題情境中,模擬教學實務,讓學生整合特殊教育與輔助科技專業知能,以小組合作方式解決三個案例的問題。同時在 PBL 運作歷程中,以學生為核心,學生在小組中分別擔任主席、紀錄、發言人與其他組員等角色,教師則擔任誘發者、引導者與促進者。研究發現,所有學生對於 PBL 教學法持正面評價,肯定 PBL 有助於學生專注與參與課堂中、激發學生的學習興趣與動機,以及在 PBL 歷程中,學生學習主動搜尋相關資訊、參與小組討論並與同儕溝通協調與團隊合作,以多元與系統性思考推理、問題解決方式,整合與應用特殊教育與輔助科技專業知能解決案例問題,進而習得輔助科技專業知能。本研究結果對於大學教師在師資培育應用 PBL 教學法提供一可行之教學實踐參考案例。最後,根據研究結果對教學實務與未來研究提出建議,並說明其研究限制。
Purpose: The gap between educational theory and practice is a long-running problem in the field of teacher education. Problem-based learning has been increasingly used and applied in medical education and health care in recent years. However, problem-based learning is seldom emphasized in teacher education courses, the focus of which is the instruction of theoretical knowledge. Problem-based learning allows students to combine theory and practice to solve simulated or real-life case problems, thereby improving their problem-solving ability. This study explored the process and effects of implementing problem-based learning in an assistive technology course offered by the special education department of a national university in Taiwan. Methods: This study employed an action research approach. In total, 39 senior students enrolled in an assistive technology course in the second semester of the 2019 academic year participated in the study. The participants were divided into eight groups, each consisting of 4 or 5 students. The study was conducted in three phases: preparation, practice, and reflection. Three cases were presented to the participants as problem-based scenarios to simulate teaching practice. The effects of problem-based learning were evaluated using quantitative and qualitative methods, including questionnaires, focus group interviews, and reflection logs. Results/ Findings: The students used knowledge acquired in the assistive technology course to collaboratively solve problems related to the cases. Through this student-centered and problem-based learning approach, students assumed the roles of chairpersons, recorders, speakers, and group members. The teacher assumed the role of facilitator, guide, and promoter. Both qualitative and quantitative data indicated that every student provided positive feedback on problem-based learning. Problem-based learning helped the participants to focus and participate in the classroom. It stimulated their interest and motivation to learn, enabling them to search actively for relevant information; participate in group discussions; communicate; collaborate; employ varied and systematic thinking, reasoning, and problem-solving methods; integrate their theoretical knowledge and experience in special education and assistive technology for problem-solving; and subsequently acquire professional assistive technology knowledge and skills. Conclusions/Implications: The results demonstrated the feasibility of problem-based learning in special education teacher education programs. Applying problem-based learning can have positive influences on students and encouraged teachers to reflect on their teaching methods. In conclusion, problem-based learning should be implemented in subjects related to teacher education programs for preservice teacher education students to develop their thinking, reasoning, problem-solving, communication, and teamwork skills. However, the research on problem-based learning in special education requires additional attention and methodological refinement.
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