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  本研究的目的在探討第一個實質統治蘭嶼的國家─日本,如何透過理蕃政策、土地調查等手段控制蘭嶼的土地與達悟族(日治時期稱「Yami」),以及日治時期所制定的土地相關法規、土地利用方式如何延續至戰後,並隨著時局鉅變進而成為蘭嶼土地大量流失的源頭。有關蘭嶼的先行研究多以人類學、民族學為主,歷史學相對缺乏;探討蘭嶼土地問題的研究亦多以戰後為時間斷限,然而筆者爬梳日治時期的史料文獻後,發覺土地被侵占或不當利用的源頭就在日治時期。   在大航海時代展開前,蘭嶼達悟族和語言、文化相近的巴丹群島Ivatan人交流最為頻繁,即使兩地於三百多年前因紛爭導致交流停滯,而臺灣陸續受到荷蘭、西班牙、鄭氏與清帝國的統治,蘭嶼依舊處於遺世獨立的狀態。直到1874年牡丹社事件爆發,清帝國施行開山撫番政策,蘭嶼也在1877年被象徵性地納入清帝國版圖,並由恆春縣管轄,而此舉即為1895年蘭嶼被劃入日本帝國領土的關鍵。   日本帝國是第一個實質統治蘭嶼的國家,由於沒有前朝相關施政紀錄可沿襲或參考,便在1897年先派出探險隊調查蘭嶼(紅頭嶼)自然環境、物產及族群等,發現蘭嶼對日本無多少殖產之利,加上地處偏遠、蕃情穩定,所以在1908年由派出所改制為駐在所、1909年由蕃地轉為普通行政區,官方對蘭嶼的理蕃脈絡皆異於其他臺灣原住民族,而自成一格。   本研究發現臺灣總督府從未明令將蘭嶼設為人類學保留地而放棄開發,且官方在各時期對蘭嶼的開發不曾停滯,並因應時勢改變對蘭嶼殖產的需求。臺灣總督府所制定的高砂族保留地制度,雖然未在日治時期造成顯著影響,但卻因戰後國民政府撤退來臺的情勢變化下,使得蘭嶼轉為安置龐大軍需人口與重刑犯的地方。戰後國民政府承襲自高砂族保留地的山地保留地制度,雖然原意是為維護原住民生計,卻允許公家機關及各級學校經呈准後使用保留地,在國家需求與國家特權相互交織下,使日治時期的法令條文轉為大量蘭嶼土地「流失」的關鍵。   本研究分析蘭嶼土地被侵占或不當利用的根源及現今面臨的土地爭議,發現若只分析戰後的法規和現象無法了解問題癥結,因山地保留地的「原型」即承襲自日治時期的高砂族保留地。因此若要解開部落之於國家、傳統領域之於國土間的矛盾與紛爭,就必須探討日治時期國家對蘭嶼土地的控制及影響,方能找到現今蘭嶼土地爭議的脈絡與源頭。
  This study investigates the policies and methods used in controlling the land and people (the Tao people; in older literature called the Yami people) of Lanyu by the Japanese, the first government to hold substantive rule over the island, as well as how land regulations and utilization persisted after World War II, resulting in the large-scale loss of land on the island. Previous research on Lanyu-related subjects has been concentrated heavily on the fields of anthropology and ethnology, with historical studies a relative paucity; moreover, studies on land appropriation issues in Lanyu are almost singularly centered upon post-WWII governance. After researching historical documents pertaining to Lanyu from the Japanese rule era, the present author has found that the loss of land in Lanyu owing to misappropriation actually has its origins during the Japanese period.  Long before the Age of Exploration, the Tao people of Lanyu had frequent interaction with the Ivatan people of the Batanes archipelago, who shared a similar language and customs. After this interaction ceased three centuries ago, owing to disagreements between the peoples, Lanyu became an island cut off from the rest of the world, even as the island of Taiwan itself came under the rule of the Dutch, the Spanish, the Kingdom of Tungning, and finally the Qing Empire. Only until after the Mudan Incident of 1874 did the Qing government begin their policy of “pacifying the aboriginals”, and Lanyu was symbolically annexed into the Qing Empire in 1877, under the administration of Hengchun Prefecture. This was what resulted in Lanyu becoming part of the Japanese empire in 1895 after the First Sino-Japanese War.   Being the first government to hold substantive rule over Lanyu, no prior governmental records or documentation was available to the Japanese, and an expedition was sent to the island (called Kōtō-sho in Japanese) in 1897 to assess the environment, resources, and people there. The expedition concluded that the island held little value for the Japanese; because of its remote location, and the unrebellious nature of the aboriginals, the Japanese presence was reduced in 1908 from a police precinct to a police garrison, and in 1909 the island was reclassified from an “aboriginal land” to a normal administrative region. The governance of the Lanyu locals was unique, with the Japanese applying a different system compared to all other Taiwanese aboriginal peoples.   In this study, we find that the Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan never ceased development of Lanyu because of its official status as an ethnological reserve area off limits to the public, with development adjusted according to the changing necessities of the time. Even though the Takasago (Taiwanese aboriginal) reservation system under the Governor-General of Taiwan never had much impact during Japanese rule, the situation changed when the Nationalist (KMT) government relocated to Taiwan after defeat in the Chinese Civil War, with Lanyu becoming a place to house large numbers of military personnel and convicted felons. The Nationalist government retained the Takasago reserve system established by the Japanese; although its purpose was ostensibly to ensure the livelihoods of the aboriginal peoples, governmental institutions and schools could apply for use of reserved lands, and the legacy Japanese regulations became the cause for the mass misappropriation of land in Lanyu, with national needs and elite privileges combining to appropriate lands.   We find that post-WWII laws and circumstances do not hold the key to understanding the root of land misappropriation, issues, and controversies in Lanyu today, since the prototype of the Nationalist government’s aboriginal reserve system lies in the Japanese Takasago reserve system. If we seek to understand the paradoxes pertaining to the conflict between tribes and national governments, and between traditional life and state-owned lands, we must first understand how the land of Lanyu was controlled under Japanese rule and its lasting impact; only then will we be able to elucidate the origins of the conflicts of today.



蘭嶼, 紅頭嶼, 達悟族, 土地流失, 高砂族保留地, 山地保留地, Orchid Island, Kōtōsho, Tao, The Loss of Land, Takasago Reserve, Aboriginal Reserve