高爾夫消費者涉入、口碑傳播與球場品牌形象之研究

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2013

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本研究將高爾夫球場視為一個品牌,採用問卷調查法進行資料收集。研究目的在瞭解高爾夫消費者之消費特性與人口背景現況,分析不同消費者特性在消費者涉入、口碑傳播與球場品牌形象上的差異情形,並探討消費者涉入、口碑傳播與球場品牌形象之間的關聯性與預測能力,進而驗證口碑傳播在消費者涉入與球場品牌形象之間的中介效果。於2013年3月期間針對高爾夫消費者,採滾雪球式抽樣法回收調查之有效問卷共424份,以IBM SPSS 20.0統計軟體採用描述性統計、卡方檢定、獨立樣本t檢定、單因子變異數分析、事後比較方法、皮爾森積差相關分析、路徑分析以及Sobel檢定進行資料處理與分析,結果如下:一、高爾夫消費者以中高年齡的已婚男性、具大專校院以上學歷、平均月收入在50,001~100,000元者居多。習慣在平日早上、消費金額在2,001~4,000元、並且最常與朋友前往球場消費的消費者居多。二、不同的消費時段與婚姻狀態有關聯性,已婚者偏好在早上八點至中午前的時段前往球場打球。三、不同性別在消費者涉入上有顯著差異存在,男性除了在涉入程度上普遍高於女性之外,對於高爾夫的認知也明顯高於女性。四、受到教育程度的不同影響,學歷越高則口碑傳播的情況則越低。五、在球場的品牌形象部份,男性高於女性,尤其在功能性形象方面更是有顯著的差異。六、高爾夫消費者涉入、口碑傳播與球場品牌形象之間有正向關係,並存在著預測能力。七、口碑傳播在消費者涉入與球場品牌形象之間具有中介效果存在。 本研究建議高爾夫球場經營者除了鞏固中高年齡的男性消費者所形成的主要市場之外,開發具有消費潛力的女性以及年輕族群的市場,採用價格策略或是活動日的專案來進行促銷活動,並透過口碑傳播與科技化的資訊平台來接觸消費者,以建立球場良好的品牌形象。
This study regard golf course as a brand and uses the questionnaire survey procedure to collect the data. The purpose of this study is to know the consumers’ characteristics and demographics; to analyze the differences of different comsumer characteristics among consumer involvement, word of mouth, and brand image; to probe into the connection among consumer involvement, word of mouth, and brand image; analysis if consumer involvement is the significant indicator for brand image and the mediation effect of word of mouth between consumer involvement and brand image. The total 424 valid consumers sampling surveys during March to April, 2013 are retrieved by using snowball sampling. The IBM SPSS 20.0 statistics software is used to process and analyze the data, including descriptive statistics, Chi-Square test, independent t-test, oneway ANOVA, Scheffé post hoc comparison, Pearson correlation analysis, path analysis, and Sobel test. The results were as following: 1. The main golf consumers are middle-aged and married males with college education, and income from NT$ 50,001 to 100,000 per month. Most consumers who spend from NT$ 2,001 to 4,000 on weekday morning go to the courses with friends more often. 2. Different consumption schedule is significantly correlated with consumers’ marital status. Married consumers prefer to go to the courses in the morning. 3. There are remarkable differences about consumer involvement between both sexes. Males’ recognition of the golf sport is higher than that females have. 4. Education level makes significant difference in word of mouth. The higher education level one gets, the lower word of mouth one makes. 5. Sex makes significant difference in brand image of golf course. Males’ brand image on the golf course is better than females’, especially on functional brand image. 6. There are positive correlation among consumer involvement, word of mouth, and brand image. Besides, there are significant predictors among consumer involvement, word of mouth, and brand image. 7. Reserch findings indicate that word of mouth plays significant mediating role between consumer involvement and brand image. In summary, the study gives suggestions as following: First of all, owners or manager of golf courses should solid the main market made up of senior male, potential females, and young generations. Using price strategies or special day to formulate promotion policies. Furthermore, according to the results of this study, owners and manager of golf courses are recommend that they can use word of mouth and the tech platform as marketing tools to establish positive brand image among consumers.

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高爾夫球場, 消費者涉入, 口碑傳播, 品牌形象, golf course, consumer involvement, word of mouth, brand image

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