校長領導行為與學校經營之研究 - 以印尼西加一所私立學校為例

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2017

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在印尼市區的私立學校比公立學校多,因此,導致學校人力資源不足,亦產生了人才流動與高度相互競爭的問題。此現象與校長本身的領導行為與學校經營息息相關,因為校長的領導能力,會直接影響學校各層級的管理與領導模式。 故本研究以一所K-12的私立學校為個案研究的對象,該校位處偏鄉市區,經費與場地的有限之學校,該校包括:托兒及幼兒園、小學、初中及高中,本研究主要係針對三位現任校長,以及一位前任校長領導之行為表現。 本研究採個案研究法進行資料蒐集,運用半結構訪談、參與觀察、資料蒐集以及省思之過程,分析個案校長的DISC人格特質、領導行為表現與差異及個案校長領導行為對經營學校的影響,以及校務經營之績效表現。以下為本研究主要發現 : 一、個案學校四位校長之人格特質影響到其領導行為,穩定型的領導行為為高倡導高關懷,謹慎型與主導-影響型的領導行為高倡導低關懷,影響與謹慎型的領導行為為低倡導高關懷。 二、穩定型性格的校長領導行為,對學校發展無法作出新突破;主導影響型性格的校長領導行為,雖對學校校務作出新發展,然教師成員不適應該校長的領導進而導致流動較大。 三、良好的溝通與直接參與是校長間接指導教師成員的方式。 四、校長透過傳達清楚的資訊與有系統的目標,讓組織成員更有效地大成功的目標。 五、校長的時間管理及其與成員之間的關係影響校長經營學校。 六、校長透過有彈性的領導、支持成員及給予成員自由發揮的空間,可以培養成員創新及發展的心。 七、「信任」與「滿足」是校長領導及經營學校成員的重要元素。當校長與成員能彼此信任,成員獲得滿足,可使成員樂意創新與貢獻,進而提升該層級的工作績效。 基於以上的研究發現,本研究對個案校長、個案學校及後續相關的建議: 一、校長應以雙向溝通方式、清楚表達目標,為了獲得彼此資訊,以及善於表達和協調為了達到共同目標。 二、校長的領導要掌握時間管理的計畫、激勵及參與工作,為提升組織成員工作效率及績效。 三、採行水平組織結構的學校領導能夠促使成員與校長之間建立較緊密之關係,並且能建立該層級成員對校長足夠的信任,以提高其所執行的作業及協助校長的意願將會隨著提高。 四、校長領導及經營學校成員若以真誠、公平及公正的對待學校成員為提高人際關係。 五、校長若能透過善於運用學校資源、創新學校特色、展現學校成員之能力等方法可成功行銷學校。
In town areas in Indonesia, the number of private schools are larger than that of public schools. However, the fact that private schools lack human resources causes schools to recruit qualified members eagerly. The leadership behavior of school principals is closely related to management of schools. And principals’ leadership and individual abilities are what affect the organization in terms of its leadership level. The objective of this study was to explore school principal’s leadership behavior of Indonesian private school based on a K-12 system private school which is situated in remote town areas and limited in financial support and space. The school includes kindergarten, elementary, junior high and senior high, and the individual principal of the aforementioned different level are targets for individual case study. The study explored the school principal’s leadership behavior differences and the school principal’s performance of school management, through qualitative case study, semi-structured interviews, participate observation, data collection and exploration. Results of this study showed: 1.The case study of four principal’s personality traits was affected by their leadership behaviors, which were defined as follows: The S personality traits have high initiative and highly considerate leadership behavior; the C and the DI personality traits have high initiative but low consideration; and the IC personality traits have low initiative but high consideration. 2.The S personality even have high initiative and high considerate leadership behavior, even though it has no new breakthrough in the school development. In contrast, The DI personality traits show high initiative but low consideration, in regards of school development, but school members are not satisfied with the principal’s leadership, therefore it leads to an increasement in their mobility. 3.A good communication skill in an interpersonal relationship as well as a participation in motivating and supporting the school personnels reflect some indirect guidance to school personnels 4.The principal is able to lead the personnels to a step closer to the organisation goal by giving some succinct and systematic information and instruction. 5.The time management skill and interpersonal relationship quotient influence the ways how the principal manages the school. 6.The principal is capable of managing the school members flexibly and provides them with a sense of freedom to express their creativity which in turn may develop the organization itself. 7.“Trust” and “satisfaction” are two important elements for the school principal to lead and manage the school personnels. When the personnels trust the principal, feel satisfied with the principal management, and enjoy the school atmosphere, they will be willing to contribute their ideas or innovation. Based on the research outcomes, The reseacher points out some recommendations for the school principals, the school and the future researchers in the same field : 1.The principal need to have the apparent bilateral communication in conveying a clear objective to obtain information, the ability to communicate, and the capability of negotiating to achieve the same goal. 2.In the scope of the principal leadership, the time management in a planning stage as well as the willingness to motivate the members and participate in the team work are demanded to improve the personnels’ productivity. 3.When leading the school personnels followed a horizontal organization structure, the school principal and school members had a friendly and better relationship, which also helped them to rely more on school personnels, to execute better at work and to increase their willingness to assist the school principal. 4.The principal ought to show the state of being sincere fair and thorough must be upheld when serving the personnels in order to improve the interpersonal relationship 5.The capability of utilizing the school resources as well as showing both the school characteristics in the school development planning stage and the teachers’ ability in the school marketing and image building phases are two important points in the principal leadership.

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印尼 K-12 system 私立學校, 校長領導行為, DISC 人格特質, 學校經營, K-12 system Indonesian private school, Principal's leadership, DISC personality traits, School management

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