日治時期臺灣洋裁的移入與發展

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2015

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本論文要討論在日治時期西方的洋裁技術如何傳播到近代臺灣社會中的過程,以及洋裁新技術對於臺灣婦女的影響。日本統治初期,總督府為了吸引臺灣女性接受近代教育,在各級學校的教育科目中鑲入以女性為對象的裁縫科,並配合在地社群的需求,教授內容以臺灣式裁縫為起始,漸進地融入洋裁與和裁的理論與技術,期望以洋服的普及達到「內台一致」的同化效果。洋裁教育易速成和帶有經濟力的特質,隨即受到臺灣女性的歡迎。為彌補官方裁縫教育的不足之處,隨之而起的是具有升學替代管道與補校性質的專門洋裁教育機構的出現,當中以吉見裁縫學園為代表。臺灣傳統家庭心態的改變,認為女性學習洋裁之後可以貼補家用,更視為走入婚姻的必備技能,這種對學習裁縫的熱衷,反映在吉見裁縫學園的日臺學生數的消長。總督府官方也利用此種洋裁教育機構的存在,配合政令推行符合戰時需求的服裝改良運動,作為臺灣社會皇民化過程的一個環節。 裁縫機的移入是臺灣洋裁普及不可或缺的必要條件。1904年美國勝家裁縫機在臺灣開立分店,其提供教學服務的銷售方法,成為臺灣人接觸裁縫機的濫觴。勝家裁縫機在日本的耕耘,成為日本發展國產裁縫機仿效的對象,國產裁縫機不到前者一半的價格,使殖民地台灣的各級學校或家庭得以負擔購置,讓洋裁教育的推廣更為普及。
The thesis outlines the process which showed the western tailor skills were introduced into the society in Taiwan during the Japanese colonial period and, also, the influence of new western tailor skills to the female Taiwanese. In the beginning of the colonial period, the government introduced the tailor subjects to the diverse schools in order to attract female Taiwanese to take the modern education. Initially, to meet local society’s need, they were taught with the Taiwanese tailors as the main topic and then the theories and skills which merged with the western and Japanese tailors. The assimilation was expected because of the universal tailors. In the fact of the characteristics of quick and commerce the tailors were getting popular among the female Taiwanese soon. Then, more and more educational institutes, such as Yoshimi tailor school, popped up which supplied additional ways to make up the flaws of the official tailor educational institutes. Gradually, the increase of enrollment in Yoshimi tailor school reflected the fact that the female Taiwanese had passion on tailors. The traditional concept change led the enthusiasm because the females considered the tailor as an important skill and they could earn some money by it as well. The official alsoheld some government orders, like cloth modification movement in war time, which played an important role during Japanese colonial process. The introduction of sewing machines was a milestone to the widespread of tailors. In 1904, American Singer sewing machine had the first branch in Taiwan. They provided tailor manipulation tutorials to costumers and it made the sewing machines more friendly to Taiwanese. The development of local sewing machines in Japan was followed by mimicking the sewing machines of Singer because of its long-term thriving operation in Japan. The national sewing machines had the half price as them of Singer and the price made the machines affordable for the schools and families in Taiwan. Finally, it forced the education of tailors more widespread.

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洋裁技術, 服裝文化, 裁縫學校, 裁縫機, 女性, Tailor skills, cloth culture, tailor school, sewing machine, female

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