馬中關係對馬來西亞南海政策影響之研究:以納吉政府(2009-2018 年)為例

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2022

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關於馬來西亞政治與經濟發展之相關研究多以馬哈迪作為研究主體,即探討馬哈迪對馬中關係或馬國南海政策之影響,抑或以「後馬哈迪時代」作為分析途徑,探討繼馬哈迪以後的兩任首相如何依循馬哈迪政府的對中與南海政策持續發展相關政策。然而,本文旨在以前首相納吉為研究主體與背景,分析納吉政府的馬中關係發展,並瞭解馬中關係對納吉政府的南海政策所產生之影響為何。在納吉任馬國首相期間,馬中關係無論在經濟貿易、社會交流及國防安全等層面,其合作緊密程度可說是達致歷史高點,尤其在經貿層面。始於 2009 年,中國連年成為馬來西亞最大貿易夥伴,並且中國領導人在 2013 年將中馬關係升格為「全面戰略夥伴關係」,意指兩國未來無論在經濟貿易、社會文化、國防安全等層面,將擁有高度且重要的合作潛力。儘管如此,馬中關係亦並非毫無齟齬,尤其兩國於南海地區擁有主權重疊爭端,而在納吉任政年間,中國基於「九段線」歷史主張在南海的維權作為乃愈趨激進。對此,納吉政府的南海政策制定與實施勢必得格外謹慎與彈性,以免主權爭議破壞馬中友好關係,進而對馬國經濟發展形成重大衝擊。經本文分析與瞭解,納吉乃延續前首相馬哈迪的南海政策基礎,即藉由「有限扈從」、「約束力交往」、「務實經濟」、「優勢阻斷」,以及「間接制衡」等方式對中國採取「避險策略」,以此維護馬來西亞在南海的主權利益,同時也能維續馬中友好關係。
This study aims to analyse the relationship between Malaysia and China during the tenure of Najib Razak as the 6th Prime Minister of Malaysia, and attempt to understand the influences of Sino-Malaysia relations towards the latter's South China Sea (SCS) policy. The association between Malaysia and China has been reached to the highest peak during the premiership of Najib Razak, particularly in the development of economics, China is presently the largest trading partner of Malaysia since 2009. Furthermore, the Beijing government has elevated the relation with Malaysia to a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership in 2013, in order to enhance and strengthen the cooperative between two sides to a track of comprehensive and mature development. However, the territorial disputes in the SCS remain continuously as a thorn between the partnership of Putrajaya and Beijing from time to time, especially the latter's growing assertiveness in the SCS has generated anxiety and suspicion to the former during the Najib's tenure. In order to avoid the territorial disputes degrade the partnership between the two sides and hit the economic growth of Malaysia, the Najib's government has gone on with the strategy of his predecessor, Mahathir Mohamad, that is endeavouring to develop the hedging strategy towards China by various ways, i.e. limited bandwagoning, binding engagement, economic pragmatism, dominance denial, and indirect balancing.

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馬來西亞, 中國, 南海, 馬中關係, 南海問題, 納吉政府, Malaysia, China, South China Sea, Malaysia-China Relations, South China Sea Disputes, Najib Administration

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