中文版慈悲心靈量表應用於臺灣青少年之心理計量分析

Date
2021-06-??
Authors
張芝萱
Chih-Hsuan Chang
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Publisher
國立台灣師範大學特殊教育學系
National Taiwan Normal University Department of Special Education
Abstract
慈悲與心理健康的關係,近年逐漸受到學術與臨床研究的關注,其概念可擴展資優生情意發展的視域。惟現階段尚無適用於中小學的中文測量工具,因此,本研究進行了兩項國外慈悲量表之中文化工作—慈悲感知與行動量表(The Compassionate Engagement and Action Scale),慈悲憂慮量表(Fears ofCompassion Scale),以651 位5 到12 年級學生樣本(包含中小學資優生與普通生),系統的檢驗量表信效度與因素結構,確認其跨文化適用性。結果顯示:一、中文版慈悲感知與行動量表,經驗證性因素發現:「自我慈悲」、「對他人慈悲」、「他人對己慈悲」三個子量表下各包含二因素:慈悲的感知(理情涉入)及行動(實踐智慧);二、中文版慈悲憂慮量表之三個子量表下各具二因素:「自我慈悲的憂慮」包含「自我疏離」和「嚴以律己」;「對人慈悲的憂慮」包含「心理負擔」、「負面人性」;「他人對己慈悲的憂慮」包含「擔憂失落」和「關係距離」;三、中文版慈悲心靈量表具良好的內部一致性與再測信度;慈悲感知與行動和情緒型態、安全依附及人事智能呈顯著正相關;慈悲憂慮與逃避和焦慮依附呈中高度正相關,與人事智能呈低度負相關;四、透過雙元因子CFA 模式,可發現個體的慈悲心靈除了受「自我慈悲」、「對人慈悲」和「他人對己慈悲」等脈絡因素的影響,同時受「慈悲憂慮」、「慈悲感知與行動」特質因素的影響。綜言之,中文版慈悲心靈量表應可適用為測量青少年慈悲心靈構念之研究工具,並可藉此了解資優生的情意發展。最後,提出本量表未來研究與應用之相關建議。
Purpose: The relationship between compassion and mental health has gradually attracted academic and clinical interest. Compassion is a sensitive, empathetic, sympathetic and nurturing attitude toward suffering or distress with a commitment to try to relieve it in self and others. It involves caring motivation, distress tolerance, and requires courageous actions. The concept of compassion can enrich the connotation of affective development for gifted students. Nevertheless, no Chinese version of scales for assessing students' compassion exists. Little is known about the development of adolescents' compassion. Therefore, in this study, two scales were translated and examined: Chinese version of Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales (CCEAS) and Chinese version of Fears of Compassion Scale (CFCS). The Chinese Version of Compassion Mind Scales (CCMS) comprises the two scales above. The CCMS provides an integrated assessment about three orientations of compassion competencies and fears: the compassion for others, the compassion from others, and self-compassion. Methods: This study validated the CCMS in Taiwanese adolescents by using a cross-sectional design. The questionnaire samples included 5th–12th grade nongifted students and gifted students (N = 651). Participants completed a range of scales including compassionate engagement and action, fears of compassion, emotional styles, attachment styles, and personal intelligence. The reliability, validity, factor constructs, cross-cultural applicability, and differences between gifted and nongifted students of CCMS were examined systematically. Results/Findings: 1) The CCEAS has three original dimensions: self-compassion, compassion for others, and compassion from others. Each dimension includes the two factors of compassionate engagement and compassionate action. 2) The CFCS includes three original dimensions: fears of compassion for others, with the factors psychological burden and negative humanity; fears of compassion from others, with the two factors of worry about loss and relationship distance; and fears of self-compassion, with the two factors of self-isolation and strict self-discipline. 3) The CCMS has acceptable internal consistency and retest reliability. The dimension of compassionate engagement and action is significantly positively correlated with emotional styles, secure attachment, and personal intelligence. Fears of compassion are significantly and positively correlated with avoidance and anxious attachment. Personal intelligence is slightly correlated with compassionate engagement and action and also with fears of compassion. 4) According to a Bifactor confirmatory factor analysis model, the compassion mind is affected not only by the contextual factors of self-compassion, compassion for others, and compassion from others but also by the special factors of fears of compassion and compassionate engagement and action. Fears of compassion are slightly negatively correlated with compassionate engagement and action. Conclusions/Implications: The CCMS is a valid research tool for measuring the competencies and fears of compassion in adolescents which can be used in research and clinical practice. The CCMS also distinctly discriminates between gifted and nongifted students, thus supporting its specificity. The CCMS further indicates important complex relationships between emotional styles, attachment styles, and personal intelligence. Understanding how to facilitate compassionate engagement and action and inhibit fears of compassion is critical; herein, suggestions based on the results are proposed.
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