戰爭時期臺灣與朝鮮神社建造之比較

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2014

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國家神道是從明治維新之後到終戰爲止,透過皇室崇拜及神社信仰的融合成為國家統合的道具。其影響到日本統治的殖民地,如:臺灣與朝鮮也都被建造神社,而在日治時期且戰爭擴大的期間這角色更為重要。雖然終戰以後國家神道消失了,但在與日本完全不同的殖民地上建造日本神社,這點被當作有趣的殖民地研究主題。不過現在關於殖民地神社的研究是,大部分在日本、臺灣、韓國等各國家進行單方面的研究,而且在比較研究上探討的較為淺。因此需要透過比較研究來鑽研並深入探討更明確的殖民地神社建立之意義。 如此本論文在日治時期且戰爭擴大的期間,於1936年神社政策的整備前後來進行臺灣與朝鮮的神社建造的比較。比較的內容是以神社政策、神社數量、祭神、神社社格等…為主題來進行比較。除此之外,神社建造對臺灣與朝鮮舊有信仰之影響也進行比較。像是台灣的寺廟整理運動和朝鮮村落祭祀利用。還有因神宮大麻奉齋有關的臺灣正廳改善運動與朝鮮家庭祭祀縮小也進行研究。即使臺灣與朝鮮的舊有信仰不同,但因神社建立的出現,這個歷史事實在透過比較的過程中又讓神社建立有不同意謂的見解。 因此本論文研究1936年以前臺灣與朝鮮的神社建造及戰爭擴大時期神社建造之比較,在共同點上會把握明確的歷史事實;而在不同點上將會賦予特別的意義。
State Shinto (國家神道) had existed as an important tool for national integration through the emperor worship and the unification of state religion from the Meiji Restoration to the end of the Pacific War. It greatly influenced on Japanese colonialism as Japan expanded their territories in the war and a large number of shrines were erected in Japanese colonies under the policies of the Japanese Government-General. Based on the fact that shrines were constructed in colonies, which did not understand the concept of State Shinto at all, it has been an interesting subject among historians studying on Japanese colonialism, although it disappeared after the Pacific War. Most existing studies on colonial shrines were conducted on the basis of each colony and comparative studies on shrines in different colonies have been minimal. Academic requests for a comparative study on the meaning of the construction of colonial shrines, therefore, have been continuously grown. In this context, this study compares the construction of colonial shrines in Taiwan and Chosun before and after 1936, when the war time period was expanded and the policies on shrines were modified, and topics such as policies on shrines, number of shrines, and gods of shrines were adopted for the comparison. In addition, the meaning of the construction of colonial shrines are defined in this study considering a variety of criteria such as the change of Japan’s system of ranking Shinto shrines, the construction of patriot shrines, shrine worships, shrine services, and wedding before the altar. In order to explore the influences of the construction of colonial shrines on traditional beliefs of Taiwan and Chosun, the historical events such as the use of Chosun’s Village Rites, Japanese Paper Amulets (神宮大麻), Taiwan’s Religious Reform (寺廟整理運動), Taiwan’s Main Hall Reform (正廳改善運動), and Chosun’s Ancestor Worship (家庭祭祀) were also compared in this study on the basis of the fact that traditional beliefs of Taiwan and Chosun were different.

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殖民地神社, 臺灣與朝鮮之神社, 臺灣與朝鮮之神社政策, 神社與舊有信仰, Colonial shrines, Shrines in Taiwan and Chosun, Policies on colonial shrines, Shrines and traditional beliefs

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