高等教育評鑑對我國學術自由之影響-以95年度系所評鑑為例

Abstract

高等教育評鑑對我國學術自由之影響 -以九十五年度系所評鑑為例          摘要  本研究旨瞭解現行大學教師對於我國學術自由之看法,並探討高等教育評鑑對我國學術自由之影響以及現行高教評鑑運作之相關問題,研擬發展高教評鑑與維護學術自由兩者之平衡策略,並根據研究發現與結論,提出建議,以供相關機構及人員之參考。  本研究透過文獻探討,採取問卷調查法與訪談法進行研究,首先針對九十五年度實施系所評鑑的十七所受評學校,發放問卷,針對大學教師及系所主管進行調查,共發出558份問卷,回收問卷計307,剔除填答不全及無效問卷等9份,共計有效問卷為293份,問卷回收率達,本研究以SPSS for Windows10.0統計套裝軟體進行資料登錄與分析;其次,以自編之半結構訪談大綱,針對四位系所主管及兩位教師,共計六名進行訪談。  綜合文獻探討、調查研究與訪談研究發現,獲得以下之結論: 一、教師對我國學術自由意涵的看法,主要集中在三個層面:分別為教學自由、研究自由與機構自主。 二、評鑑的實施造成系所過度強調外部評鑑的重要性,而喪失評鑑的自我改善之功能。 三、面對95年度首度實施系所評鑑,各系所對前置作業的準備時間充足與否,與系所成立時間的長短有關,歷史悠久的系所,由於資料檔案龐雜,需花較多的時間準備。 四、對於新成立的系所而言,尚處於探索與發展階段,無法於短時間內即反應某種程度的辦學品質與績效。 五、對於欲以系所評鑑制完整反映出系所的辦學品質,系所主管持較為保留的態度。 六、評鑑制度的設計與規劃在執行時所可能面臨到的困境在於:過度強調國際化、移植國外經驗與以及未將師範校院面臨轉型發展的困境列入評鑑指標規劃時考量。 七、高等教育評鑑進行初期不宜貿然與進退場機制作結合。 八、資深的大學教師,就高等教育評鑑對教學活動、學術研究以及機構自主的正向影響皆給予高度肯定。 九、不同職務的教師之意見傾向在「評鑑促使教學活動朝向標準化教學模式進行」、「評鑑的結果促使教師頻於調整教學內容」與「評鑑實施促使教師偏重研究工作而非教學活動」皆達到顯著差異。 十、系所主管在面對高等教育評鑑制度時,其感受以及對於績效責任的壓力,較一般教師來得強烈。  根據本研究所獲致之結論,研究者針對高等教育機構、教育主管機關、規劃高教評鑑之專責單位,以及未來研究者提出相關建議,臚列如下: 一、高等教育機構在運作時應特別注意高等教育評鑑對於教學活動、學術 研究與機構自主所帶來的影響。 (一)在評鑑結果運用與經費補助之間,必須考慮評鑑結果不應成為經費  補助的唯一參考,以及評鑑結果不應該公布排名,以免造成大學的  惡性競爭。 (二)高等教育機構在援引企業管理模的同時,應注意避免過度的商業   化。此外,高等教育的產學合作必須有更明確的法源依據。再者,  引進商業行為的同時,也必須設有一套監督的機制。 二、對於教育主管機關之建議: (一)國家有義務維持高教評鑑與學術自由兩者的平衡關係,在必要時予  以協助。 (二)適時的挹注高等教育經費,亦有助於提升高教品質與水準,強化整  體高等教育在面對國際競爭力時,能有更充足的資源與利基。 三、對於規劃高等教育評鑑之相關單位的建議 (一)發展建立本土性高等教育評鑑指標,並依據每個學門之個殊性適度  修正評鑑指標之內容。 (二)輔導系所進一步瞭解高等教育評鑑的意義,增強系所對於高教評鑑  的知能。進一步將評鑑內化於機構之中,鼓勵其自我完成改善之目  標。 (三)高等教育評鑑實施之初始階段,不宜貿然與進退場機制作結合。 四、對於後續研究之建議 (一)在研究內容方面  未來可更進一步滲入探討學術自由的各個層面,並逐一詳細分析與高教評鑑的關連性。 (二)在研究對象方面  可將研究對象擴充至一般公私立大學,或是九十六學年度的受評學校。以及針對大學教師評鑑再作進一步的研究與探討,以確認高教評鑑是否真能對教師產生影響,以及究竟產生何種影響。
A Study of the effects of Higher Education Evaluation on Academic Freedom in Taiwan-Based on the program evaluation on 2006 Abstract The purposes of this research are finds out about the current academic's view on the academic freedom in Taiwan, exploring the influence of the evaluation of the evaluation of the higher education on the academic freedom in Taiwan, and understanding the practice problems in current higher education evaluation mechanism. Meanwhile, based on the finding and conclusion, this research will provide development strategies to balance the higher education and protecting academic freedom, and the suggestion according ly to the relevant organizations and personnel's reference. This research adopts questionnaire survey and interview. and carries on research through literature review,. First, Questionnaires were delivered to 17 universities, focus on teachers and department directors. The statistics software tool used for the questionnaire analysis with SPSS for Windows10.0; Secondly, four department directors and two teachers were chosen to be interviewed in the way of semi-structure interview. The conclusions derived from the literature review, the questionnaire survey, and interviews are as follows: 1. Teacher's view on the of academic freedom of Taiwan, focus on three aspects : freedom to teach ,freedom to research, and freedom to institution operation. 2. The evaluation cause departments overemphasize that the importance on peer review, and lose the function of self-improvement of the self-evaluation. 3. Faced the first program evaluation, the prepare time for every department is different. The prepare time is related to the time the department existed, and the longer history a entire has, it needs more time since the materials file is numerous and needs time to prepare. 4. For the new department, is it explore with developing stage, unable to react to run a school quality and performance a certain degree promptly in short time to at still. 5. If want to use the evaluation knows department quality of running a school, it is that the executive holds the attitude that is comparatively kept. 6. The design of the system and planning may face the difficult: excessive to emphasize internationalization, transplant external experience with is it make the transition normal school institute predicament of development inever consider while planning to list in to face. 7. Higher education evaluation system at first, be should not to combine the education policy of exist mechanism. 8. Senior professor on higher education in the effects of Higher Education evaluation on teaching activity, academic research and organization independent to influence and all pay the high affirmation. 9. Different position teachers have different opinion on “evaluation promote teaching activity towards Standardization”, “evaluation results push teacher frequently on content of courses”, and” evaluation results teacher particular stress on research work but not teach the activity to implement “. 10. Department directors suffer more pressurethan normal teachers when facing the evaluation of the evaluation of higher education. Based on the discoveries mentioned above, the suggestions provided in this research are as follows: 1. For the higher educational institution: should pay more attention to higher education and the effects of the evaluation on teaching activity, academy while operating research and organization act on one's own on the influence brought. 2 .For education authorities (1) The country has obligation to keep balance between thehigher education evaluation and academic freedom,and gives assistance in case of necessity. (2) The funds for higher education should be added in adequately time, to improving higher education quality and level, strengthening whole higher education in the face of the international competitiveness. 3. For the Higher Education Evaluation& Accreditation Council in Taiwan should, (1) Set up local standard in higher education evaluation indicator, and amendment the indicator based on speciality of each program. (2) Provdinga guidance to the department understands to understand the purpose of higher education evaluation and to internal the evaluation system to a part of the higher education institutions. (3) Higher education evaluation system at first, be should not to combine the education policy of exist mechanism. 4. For the further study (1)To broaden the study to each aspect in academic freedom , and more detail research between analysis and higher education evaluation to close of connecting with academic freedom. (2)To broaden the study to other universities and colleges than normal schools for making sure that the higher education evaluation may cause influence to teacher , and if any, what kind of influence may be caused.

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學術自由, 高等教育, 評鑑, 系所評鑑, academic freedom, the higher education, evaluation, programme evaluation

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