Whose Cultural Identity? Michael Graves’ Architectural Collage and the National Museum of Prehistory at Taitung

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位於臺東的國立臺灣史前文化博物館是臺灣第一個致力於臺灣史前研究的博物館,此外,博物館研究領域還涉及臺灣原住民與南島文化。此建案為紐約建築師麥可·葛瑞夫(1934–2015)與臺灣建築師沈祖海(1926–2005)的跨界合作。 博物館建築工程於1997年至2001年期間進行,2002年開始正式營運。以保存與展示鄰近卑南遺址所發掘的歷史文物為出發點,設立臺灣史前史和自然史為主題的博物館,並將卑南遺址挖掘現場改為文化遺址公園。 史前文化博物館的建築概念是多樣化的結構和空間的複合體,博物館的設計顯示出建築師如何借鑒了各種早期作品中使用的建築語彙,以及材料和色彩的變化勾勒後現代建築,正如麥可·葛瑞夫在20世紀80年代和90年代的許多建案中的作法。關於史前館建築表達的象徵意義,尚有許多參考文獻未得到釐清與足夠的檢視。 在史前館建築群以目前的形式完成之前,博物館籌備處最初對在臺東設立大型史前博物館的計畫進行了廣泛的討論,展開了一段複雜的規劃過程。在葛瑞夫贏得史前館建案的競圖後,設計圖幾經修改。但到目前為止,這些面向都被忽視了。這篇碩士論文的目的是在已出版和未發表的原始資料的基礎上,盡可能精確地重建臺東國立史前史博物館的複雜歷史。再者,博物館的特色將被更深入分析,並與歐洲的後現代博物館比較,以便更深入地了解麥可·葛瑞夫對臺東史前館的想法。最後,葛瑞夫的想法在多大程度上反映了博物館規劃的目標也會被審視。
The National Museum of Prehistory in Taitung was the first museum in Taiwan devoted to the island’s earliest history. Apart from that, the museum’s mission concerns Taiwanese indigenous and Austronesian culture. The project involved cross-border collaboration between New York-based architect Michael Graves (1934–2015) and the Taiwanese practice of Haigo Shen (1926–2005). While the construction work was executed between 1997 and 2001, the museum was officially inaugurated in 2002. Proceeding from the mission to preserve and exhibit the historical artifacts originating from the nearby Peinan Excavation Site, the aim was to create a museum for Taiwanese prehistory and natural history, with the excavation site transformed into an archeological park. The museum’s structural concepts as a complex of diverse buildings and spaces, the architectural language that borrows motifs from diverse earlier sources and that is full of allusions and references as well as the variation of materials and colors show obvious reminiscences of the architecture of the Postmodern movement as it was implemented by Michael Graves in many of his projects of the 1980s and 1990s. With its expressed symbolism, the architecture of the museum in Taitung makes a multitude of references that have not yet been clarified and scrutinized enough. Until the building complex could be completed in its present form, there was, initially, an extensive debate about the question what museum was needed in Taitung. The discussion was followed by a complex planning process. After Graves won the competition for the project, the planning process continued. All these aspects have been totally neglected by specialists so far. It is the objective of this master’s thesis to, first, reconstruct as precisely as possible the complex history of the National Museum of Prehistory in Taitung on the basis of published and unpublished source material. In a second step, the particular features of the museum will be thoroughly analyzed and juxtaposed to Postmodern museum projects in Europe in order to understand better Michael Graves’ intentions for this site. Finally, it must be examined, to what extent Graves’ ideas realize the mission of the museum planners.



臺東國立臺灣史前文化博物館, 麥可·葛瑞夫, 沈祖海, 博物館建築, 後現代主義, 建築拼貼, 臺灣原住民, 文化認知, 國家認同, National Museum of Prehistory of Taitung, Michael Graves, Haigo Shen, museum architecture, Postmodernism, architectural collage, Taiwanese Indigenous Peoples, cultural cognition, national identity