船難糾紛與殖民地臺灣原住民的懲治以1903年班傑明修厄爾號(Benjamin Sewall)事件為中心

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2015

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1903年10月5日,在臺灣南部海域遭遇強烈颱風襲擊的班傑明休厄爾號逃生小艇於紅頭嶼 (今蘭嶼)靠岸。根據倖存者的證詞,逃生小艇中的11名船員,有7名船員因為島上達悟族人的劫掠行為而溺斃死亡,這起以美國為主的多國籍船員的船難事件,隨即引起美日兩國官方的高度關注,美國國務院期望臺灣總督府負起水難救護的國際義務,並執行有效力的懲治行動。此次遭難的場域、疑凶與受害者,性質類似於1867年羅發號事件,日本政府在面對美國官方的究責與善後處置的交涉,表現出不同於中國的積極統治理性。從班傑明休厄爾號梯航兩大洋間,津渡於歐美亞澳四大洲的航程記錄見微知著出,隨著1865年美國內戰結束後工業經濟的快速發展,以及「飛剪式帆船」製船技術達到成熟,使美國往來於東西太平洋海域的帆船貿易更加勃興,班傑明休厄爾號在此背景下往來於東亞海域,最終不幸沉冥於航程要路的島國南端。 以往在統治者眼中性情馴良的達悟族人,以及部落中畏懼鬼魂詛咒的禁忌文化,使其鮮少肇生致人於死的犯行。由於無法從達悟族人傳統的歲時祭儀中發掘出船難衝突的原因,面對倖存者所指控的劫掠犯行,應該歸咎於島嶼經濟資源的匱乏,所發展而來的掠奪、拾取遭難船隻與漂流物的原鄉習慣。日本官方懲膺達悟族番人行動結束後,臺灣總督府並未顯著改變施行於紅頭嶼的統治方針,紅頭嶼相對其他本島蕃地近代化的過程仍然極為緩慢。直至達悟族人因為被做為商品展示的代價,與紅頭嶼海域的漁業資源被發掘,紅頭嶼的近代化才逐漸開展。然而隨著對外開放的程度日益加增,也對達悟族部落執引入外來致命疾病,導致人口銳減的負面影響。
On October 5th 1903, a lifeboat escaped from the Benjamin Sewall, which was struck by a strong typhoon in the southern seas of Taiwan and then it landed in Botel Tobago, also known as Lanyu now. According to the survivors, 7 out of 11 crew members were drowned due to a robber by the aborigines of Tao people. Both of the government of the United States and Japan paid close attention to the shipwreck and United States Department of State indicated that Governor-General of Taiwan should take charge of international duty of marine salvage and executed the punishment properly. Moreover, the location, suspects and victims were similar with the Rover event in 1867 and Japan government showed the strict discipline comparing to China government through the interaction with the officials of the United States. In the sailing journal of Benjamin Sewall, the vessel crossed Pacific and Atlantic oceans and reached to four continents, including Europe, America, Asia and Australia. After the end of American Civil War in 1865, the local industry plumped up and the number of trades increased between the east and the west Pacific Ocean as a result of the invention and maturation of Clipper technology. Unfortunately, it sunk in the south of Taiwan. Tao people were seen as mildness and kindness and they scarcely committed crimes of killing people because they feared the curse of ghosts, which was a unique culture of themselves. Since the exact reasons for the conflicts in the shipwreck were not known during the annual Religion and Rituals of Tao, some pointed out that it should blamed on a custom of robbery and salvage, which was evolved in the scarce of resources on the island. After the punishment to Tao by Japan official, Governor-General of Taiwan did not alter the ruling policy on Tao and, comparing to other Taiwan Savage districts, the modernization in Botel Tobago proceeded slowly. Until Tao people were treated as human race exhibition and the marine resources was depleted nearby Botel Tobago, the modernization gradually went up. On the other hand, followed by the opening, it brought some bad effects, like fatal disease, which caused the number of population of Tao tribes decreased.

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船難, 班傑明休厄爾號, 美日外交交涉, 原住民懲治, 達悟, 紅頭嶼, 蘭嶼, Shipwreck, Benjamin Sewall, Japan-American Diplomatic Negotiation, Aborigine Discipline, Tao, Botel Tobago, Lanyu

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