「文化刺激」與「任務限制」對國中學生創造力之影響研究

Abstract

本研究以實驗研究法探討「文化刺激」與「任務限制」對創造力的影響,並討論以Amabile共識評量技巧評量國中生創造力之實用性及適當性。實驗參與者為42名七年級國中學生,其中一元文化刺激組與二元文化刺激組實驗參與者各半。研究工具使用多數共識評量研究採用之拼貼畫作及研究者於赴美旁聽創造力課程時,授課教師使用的線條隨想。評分者為四名國中美術教師及兩名具有資優教育專長之特殊教育系研究生,使用李克特氏五點量表獨立評量每個作品的四個向度:創意、美感、技巧、主題新穎。所得資料以混合設計二因子變異數分析、t考驗、Pearson積差相關、Cronbach α、Kendall’s ω等統計考驗法進行分析,主要研究發現如下: 一、 在具備適合受試者程度之任務及合適評分員的條件下,共識評量技巧為經濟、簡便且有效的創造力評量方式。 1. 研究選取之國中美術教師及特殊教育研究所研究生為適合評量國中學生美術創意作品之評分員。 2. 研究選取之拼貼畫作及線條隨想為適合國中學生發揮創意之任務。 3. 評分向度間的高相關可能反應當代對創造力及美感莫衷一是的觀點,抑或是文化背景造成之評分差異,即具東方文化內涵的評審可能偏向以整體的角度來觀察事物。 二、 「任務限制」變項對國中學生創造力表現並無影響,學生的創造力表現並未因為題目限制的有無而有所差異。 三、 「文化刺激」變項對創造力有實質的影響,二元文化刺激實驗參與者的創造力表現高於一元文化刺激實驗參與者,其效果量可以解釋學生創意表現19%的變異量(Partial η²=.19)。以不同任務限制水準觀之,在無任務限制的條件下,二元文化刺激組的創造力表現高於一元文化刺激組,得分差異具有大的效果量;在任務加入主題限制時,兩組之創造力表現則無顯著差異。 此外,研究者根據研究過程及結果提出對未來相關研究及文化構面創造力教育之建議。
This study examined whether cultural differences or task limits had influences upon secondary school students’ creativity performance. Also, the accessibility and the implementation of applying Amabile’s Consensus Assessment Technique (1996) on the evaluation of secondary school students’ creativity performance were examined. Forty-two students were recruited into this experiment. Half of them lived at least one year in western countries, and the rest lived in Taiwan mainly. Common-used collage and the draft-drawing were selected as the tasks for participants to perform their creativity. Six judges were using Likert scale, which contained creativeness, technique, aesthetics and innovation of the title, to quantify all of the participants’ outputs. The collected data were analyzed by mix-designed two-way ANOVA, t-test, product-moment correlation, Cronbach α and Kendall’s ω. Main findings were: 1. Consensus Assessment Technique could be a viable, efficient and economic way of assessing creativity performance while adequate tasks and appropriate judges were chosen. (1) Secondary school art teachers and graduate students with an expertise with gifted education were proper gate keepers for judging the art products of secondary school students. (2) Both collage and draft-drawing were good for assessing secondary students’ creativity performance. (3) High correlations between all dimensions of the scale might reflect the divergence of modern-day tastes or be consequent on judges’ innate cultural background. In this meaning, judges with a background of Eastern culture might have the inclination of viewing things in a holistic way. 2. There were no differences existing between the creativity performances of with-limit task or without-limit task. It indicated that binding topics to task had no impact on participants’ creativity performance. 3. Creativity performances of the students with dual-culture living experiences were significantly better than those with uni-culture living experiences. Nineteen percent of the variation could be attributed to this cultural variable. When task-limit variable was taken into account, dual-culture group was more creative than uni-culture group under none task-limit situation while no difference existed at the opposite situation. Additionally, the researcher provided several suggestions and implications for future studies and creativity education field based on the study process and the findings of this study.

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Keywords

創造力, 文化, 任務, 二元文化, 共識評量, T. M. Amabile, creativity, culture, task, dual-culture, consensus assessment technique, T. M. Aamabile

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