揭開銀行承作逆向抵押貸款關鍵因素的面紗–以臺北市六家公股銀行之經理人為調查對象

No Thumbnail Available

Date

2017

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

Abstract

我國面臨生育率下降及高齡人口平均壽命延長的雙重衝擊,使人口結構失衡情況日趨嚴重,對我國未來總體經濟成長與政府財政收支平衡產生不利影響,如何使高齡者能老有所養,成為一個亟待解決的重要議題。在此背景之下,不動產逆向抵押貸款 (reverse mortgage, RM) 所提出的以房養老概念,不失為一個有效的解決方案。 在過去傳統探討我國 RM 影響因素的文章甚多,惟其調查對象的代表性均有侷限性。經本研究統計顯示,六家公股銀行已敍做 RM 件數占全體銀行敍做件數之 9 成以上,敍做案件多集中於都會區,其中又以臺北市占比最高,具都會區之代表性。對此,本研究界定依據 106 年 1 月3 日臺北市銀行商業同業公會各會員單位名錄,對已實施 RM 的六家公股銀行 (其中包含合作金庫、土地銀行、華南銀行、臺灣中小企業銀行、第一銀行、臺灣銀行) 之 227 位分行經理人為普查對象,所採樣本特性與母體非常類似,頗具代表性。 問卷設計第一階段即邀請 18 位實務界專家參與 (有效回收率 100%,18 件),精煉出影響銀行承作 RM 的關鍵因素及其用語,並據此做為第二階段問卷的基模,第二階段進行 227 位專家問卷普查 (有效回收率 50.2%,114 件),普查結果係採用解析層級程序法 (analytic hierarchy process, AHP) 予以進行實證分析。 本研究實證分析結果顯示,銀行承作 RM 的關鍵影響因素主要集中於授信 5P 原則中的借款人 (people) 與債權保障 (protection) 兩項。具體而言,申貸者的年齡、退休準備金的充實性、子女奉養的意願、子女數、個人/家庭收入、房屋的座落地點、傳承房屋的觀念、房屋的價值、婚姻狀態與子女繼承房產的期望等前十項因素可以解釋銀行承作 RM 達 60% 的重要性。
Due to the impacts of declining fertility rate and aging population society, the imbalance of the population structure in Taiwan becomes a serious problem, resulting in unfavorable influences to the future of economic growth and government finacial balance. Finding out income generating options for aged people becomes an important issue. In this context, the real estate reverse mortgage (RM) proposes a concept that housing endowment is an effective solution. Previous studies document the influences of RM in Taiwan, but most studies focus on RM demand side and face difficulties in selecting truly a representative sample. This study focus on RM supply side. In particular, among all the banks in Taiwan, over 90% of RM cases are offered within six government-owned banks, and most cases are performed in metropolitan areas, among which Taipei has the highest percentage. Therefore, the census of this study referred to The Bankers Association of Taipei member list on January 3rd, 2017, and surveyed 227 branch managers of the six government-owned banks, including Taiwan Coperative Bank, Land Bank of Taiwan, Hua Nan Bank, Taiwan Business Bank, First Bank, and Bank of Taiwan that have offered RM. Accordinglly, the charateristics of the sample are similar to the population and the sample is highly representative of the population. There are two phases of designing and collecting questionnairs. In the first phase, 18 bank practitioners are invited to participate in answering questionnairs (effective reseponse rate=100%). These 18 effective questionnairs provide key factors and terms that refine the decision-making process of bankers in offering RM. These key factors and terms are included in the final version of the questionnsire. Ther are 114 effective questionnairs (effective reseponse rate=50.2%) in the second phase and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is utilized for empirical analysis. It is found that the key factors that affect bank’s RM offerings are mainly focused on “People” and “Protection” in the 5P principle. In particular, these key factors include the age of applicants, the arrangement of retirement pension, the will of the children to support their elder relatives, the number of children, the individual/family income, the location of the house, the concept of the inheritance, the value of the house, the status of marriage and the expectations of children to inherit assets. These ten factors account for 60% of the importance regarding why/how banks offer RM in Taiwan.

Description

Keywords

逆向抵押貸款, 以房養老, 關鍵因素, 解析層級程序法, Reverse Mortgage, Housing Endowment, Supply-side Factors, Analytic Hierarchy Process

Citation

Collections