運動比賽之微觀權力研究──以一場混雙網球比賽的分析為例

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2015

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本研究以運動比賽之微觀權力研究為題,主要著眼於網球雙打選手彼此在搭檔配合時所產生的種種關係以及由此延伸出的微觀權力。本研究以傅柯 (Michel Foucault) 之「權力的微觀物理學」(本論文簡稱微觀權力)概念作為理論基礎。其理論探討的是關於微觀權力不斷存在於人與人之間或是各種關係之中,透過對權力進行深入解析,而指向「權力關係」的運作。透過筆者自身在中華民國103年全國大專院校運動會與搭檔合作的公開混合組雙打比賽案例,探討在這次合作關係中所產生的種種權力運作模式。結果發現,權力運作方面分析出包括父親、姊姊、教練、制度、學校、學長姊、金牌、隊友、搭檔等不同的權力運作。接著再從微觀權力的影響來看,則可發現臉孔、手勢、態度、溝通、外顯行為、思想、球技、外在的監督等權力關係運作。最後,這些微觀權力下細密繁複的權力關係脈絡建構出相對明晰的結構模式,主要可歸納為四個部分:肉體──有形的權力;看──無言的權力;語言──有聲的權力;規訓──可逆的權力。透過這種種的微觀權力網絡,從各個層面、角度,以不同程度的影響力主導了這整個網球雙打搭檔過程與合作關係。
The research aims at studying the micro-powers in sport tournaments, and focuses on examining the micro-powers derived from the relations between partners in tennis doubles. In philosophy of sport, the study is based on the concept of Michel Foucault’s theory that explores micro-physics of power (micro-powers) existing constantly in persons and various relations and further points out the operation of power relations by analyzing the powers. In the case study, the author takes the personal experience while he participated in mixed doubles tennis tournament in National Intercollegiate Athletic Games 2014 and explores the operation of power in partnership. The result shows various kinds of operation of power including father, elder sister, coach, system, school, seniors, championship, teammates, and partner. Moreover, the study evaluates the influence of micro-powers and finds out the operation of power relations including face, gesture, attitude, communication, behavior, thought, technical skills, and supervision. Finally, the networks of micro-powers are clearly constructed based on examining the complex power relations and generalized into four parts. The first part is tangible power such as body, the second part is silent power such as look, the third part is vocal power such as language, and the fourth part is reversible power such as discipline. In summary, the micro-powers play a key role in influencing the partnership in tennis doubles from various aspects.

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網球雙打, 權力關係, 規訓, 傅柯, 運動哲學, tennis doubles, power relations, discipline, Foucault, philosophy of sport

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