跆拳道對打正拳得分之探討

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2021

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背景:跆拳道對打自2008年北京奧運後採用電子護具,2015年增設電子頭盔以提高比賽客觀性,目前唯一以裁判判分動作為正拳,在近年的比賽中,正拳使用率和得分率逐漸上升。目的:探討跆拳道正拳得分要素,以及教練和選手對於女子不同層級和不同奧運量級之對打比賽正拳給分差異。方法:請3位國際裁判建立得分正拳校標內容,以2019年世錦賽和108年全運會女子奧運前二量級八強賽之正拳片段作為樣本,每段影片播放2次並以亂數表隨機排序。請對打教練與選手各10位,判斷樣本是否得分和是否符合校標,以三因子變異數分析檢驗參與者對不同層級、量級的一致性和訊息正確率之影響,和二因子變異數分析檢驗參與者2次相同片段判分一致性與實際比賽有無得分和參與者判分的正確性之校標組合動作比率。結果:裁判得分校標為打擊顏色區域、完整性和力道;判分一致性在第二量級上顯著高於第一量級;國內訊息正確率顯著高於國際,而國內第二量級顯著高於國內第一量級。在參與者判斷2次相同片段時,三項校標全有情況下,2次相同片段皆給分顯著高於皆未給分,而三項校標全無和僅有打擊顏色則是2次相同片段皆未給分顯著高於皆給分。在實際比賽無論得分與否的情形下,只要達成三項校標,參與者給分顯著高於未給分;而未達三項校標,參與者未給分則顯著高於給分。結論:根據裁判在對打比賽中的得分正拳須以立拳或正拳完整打擊至護胸顏色區域,且力道足夠使對手重心向後。教練和選手與裁判有相近的判別標準,不過在標準判斷上有較寬鬆的現象。建議:未來可就不同性別和量級進行探討,而在跆拳道護具電子化的狀況下,手套若能電子化,能更提升比賽的公平性與客觀性。
Background:Taekwondo sparring started using electronic protectors after 2008 Beijing Olympic Games; furthermore, it started using electronic helmet since 2015. Punch is the only technique that scores are awarded by the referees. The performance and scoring percentage of punch has been rising in recent years. Purpose:To investigate the characteristics of scoring punches in Taekwondo sparring, and to examine the difference of the awarded scores between Taekwondo coaches and athletes for different levels and Olympic weight categories of the women’s competitions. Methods:Three international Taekwondo referees were invited to establish the characteristics of the scoring punches. Punches videos from the quarter-finals of Taekwondo sparring competitions of 2 female Olympic categories of the 2019 World Taekwondo Championship and 2019 National Game of Taiwan were used as samples. Each punch video was used twice as testing videos with a random order. Ten Taekwondo coaches and athletes viewed the punch videos and provided their scoring as well as the characteristics judgement of the punches. The consistency and correct information were used in the 3-way ANOVA to examine the effects from the categories and levels of the Taekwondo competitions as well as the coaches and athletes. Two-way ANOVAs were used for examining the occurrence ratio of the identical scoring judgement of each punch and the 9 combinations of the effective scoring characteristics of punches, and the combinations of score/no-score in game and score-no-score in judgement. Results:Three effective scoring characteristics were identified: hitting on the colored protector (color), solid fist contact (solid), and significant body displacement (displacement). The second weight category had significantly higher scoring consistency than the first category. The national competitions had significantly higher correct information than the international ones but the second weight category was only significantly higher than the first category in the national competitions. For those punches where both videos had identical scoring judgement from a participant, there were significantly higher ratio of score than no-score for the color/solid/displacement-set while significantly higher ratio of no-score than score was found in both color-only and none. The color/solid/displacement-set also resulted in significantly higher ratio of scores in scoring judgement regardless of scores/no-scores in competitions. In addition, higher ratio of no-scores in scoring judgement was found when none of the 3 effective characteristics of punches were checked. Conclusion:According to the international referees, scored punches must have a solid contact on the colored area, and resulted in a significant displacement of the center of mass of the opponent in the direction of the punch. Participants have similar standards with referees; however, they might be more lenient than referees in scoring. Suggestions:Future studies may examine the punch performance in different sex and weight categories. Moreover, the development of electronic gloves might increase the fairness and objectivity in the games.

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裁判, 主觀評分, 動作標準, Referee, Subjective score, Movement criteria

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