美國總統川普對外政策思維與實踐的研究-以貿易與同盟軍費分攤談判為例

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2021

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美國第四十五任總統川普是一位備受關注的政治人物,其言行與美國傳統政治人物具有極大的差異性,尤其是川普倡導的「美國優先」原則,以美國利益至上為對外政策考量。本論文以現實主義作為研究川普「美國優先」原則的途徑,分別從川普的對外經貿政策與同盟軍費分攤談判探討川普如何展現零和觀點以及國家中心主義。川普執政時期啟動美國貿易保護關稅,引起一系列與其他國家的貿易磋商與談判事件,本論文聚焦於川普時期的美韓、美歐、美墨加、美日以及美中的貿易關係,檢視川普如何於若干對外貿易關係中展現美國優先原則、依循美國優先原則與其他國家斡旋,最後取得其合意的貿易結果。除了貿易關係之外,本論文亦探討美國優先原則如何影響川普與同盟國家之間的同盟關係,川普建立同盟關係以利益作為出發點,特別是軍費分攤的相關議題。川普要求南韓、日本與NATO國家提高分攤軍費比例以及國防預算,皆是出於維護美國優先的政治行動,不過,也因為川普過度的主張美國優先導致美國與盟國的關係惡化。川普擔任美國總統期間,美國優先原則成為一大標誌,雖然川普並未成功連任總統,但是其表示不會放棄競選總統,因此,美國未來的對外貿易政策與同盟部署將隨著川普的政治動向產生變動。
The 45th President of the United States, Donald Trump, is a politician who has received much attention. His words and deeds are very different from those of traditional American politicians. In particular, the"America First" principle advocated by Trump, which puts American interests first as the foreign policy considerations. This research study uses realism to study Trump's "America First" principle, and discusses how Trump demonstrates his foreign trade policies and foreign alliance defense burden-sharing negotiations from the perspective of zero-sum view and state-centrism. Trump initiated the U.S. trade protection tariffs and triggered a series of trade negotiations with other countries. This research study focuses on the trade relations between the United States, South Korea, Europe, Mexico, Canada, Japan, and China. This study also examines how Trump demonstrated"America First" principle in certain foreign trade relations, mediated with other countries based on the thinking of U.S. priority, and finally achieved trade results that he agreed with. In addition to trade relations, this research study also explores how "America First" principle affects America’s relations with foreign allies. Trump’s foreign alliance establishment is based on benefit acqusition, especially the issue of military spending. Trump's request for South Korea, Japan, and NATO countries to increase the proportion of military expenditures and defense budgets is all out of safeguarding"America First" principle. However, Trump's excessive advocacy of "America First" has also led to the deterioration of relations between the United States and its allies. During Trump’s presidency, the "America First" principle became a major symbol of his. Although Trump did not succeed in being re-elected as president, he said that he would not give up running for president. Therefore, the future US foreign trade policy and alliance deployment will change with Trump’s political action.

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川普, 美國優先, 貿易政策, 同盟部署, 零和觀點, 國家中心, Trump, America First, trade policy, strategic deployment, zero-sum view, state-centrism

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