中小學校長教學領導、學校氣氛對校長工作滿意度之影響—臺灣2018年TALIS資料之分析

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2021

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本研究旨在了解臺灣中小學校長教學領導、學校氣氛與校長工作滿意度之現況,分析不同背景變項對於三者之差異,並探討整體三者之間的關係,建立結構方程模型,從中驗證學校氣氛的中介效果,最後則以多群組結構方程模型進行不同教育階段在三者之間的關係之比較。本研究使用臺灣2018年TALIS資料庫中的國小、國中及高中校長資料,以量化研究法為取徑,採用次級資料分析法、結構方程模型、Bootstrap法及多群組結構方程模型進行分析,研究對象為臺灣國小、國中及高中校長共524人,其中國小校長共192位,國中校長共185位,高中校長共147位。測量工具皆有一定的信效度。基於研究結果與討論,歸納出以下重要結論,茲臚列如下:一、正向且開放型的學校氣氛對於提升校長的工作滿意度至關重要,而教學領導在國中小階段能影響校長所知覺到的學校氣氛。 二、女性校長較男性校長更容易知覺到其教學領導作為,而教學年資高的校長較教學年資低者更常從事教學領導作為 三、年資高的校長較年資低者所知覺到的學校氣氛來的開放,而不同教育階段對學校氣氛有顯著差異 四、年資與年齡高的校長較年資與年齡低者更加滿意其工作 五、校長教學領導、學校氣氛與校長工作滿意度彼此之間呈正向關係,而校長教學領導透過學校氣氛影響其工作滿意度,學校氣氛在校長教學領導與其工作滿意度之關係中屬於完全中介 六、國中校長在教學領導、學校氣氛與其工作滿意度之關係上所受到的影響最深,國小校長的教學領導在未受到學校氣氛之中介作用前對其工作滿意度之影響最深,國中小校長的教學領導則對學校氣氛有顯著影響。造成該差異之原因在於教師的自主性與專業度不同,且受到外部因素如學校性質或情境的影響。 綜上所述,在校長教學領導、學校氣氛對校長工作滿意度之影響上,以學校氣氛為最重要的因素。不同教育階段的校長須以不同方式營造正向且開放的學校氣氛,進而能提升其工作滿意度,增進學校效能。研究者根據研究結論提出相關建議,供教育行政主管機關、校長及未來研究者參考。
This research aims to understand the current condition of principals’ instructional leadership, school atmosphere, and principals’ job satisfaction in primary and secondary schools in Taiwan, analyze the variance of different backgrounds for these three variables, and explore the relationship among the overall variables. A Structural equation model is then established. The research also verifies the mediation effect of the school atmosphere. Finally, the structural equation model with multi-group analysis for comparison of different stages of education is made to analyze the differences in the relationship among principals’ instructional leadership, school atmosphere, and principals’ job satisfaction. This research uses the data of primary school and secondary school principals from the TALIS database in Taiwan in 2018. This study adopts quantitative research as its research approach. The secondary data analysis method, structural equation model, bootstrap method, and multi-group structural equation model are used for analysis. The research objects are 524 principals. Among them, there are 192 primary school principals, 185 junior high school principals, and 147 senior high school principals. The measurement instruments all have a certain degree of reliability and validity. Based on the research results and discussion, the following important conclusions are summarized as follows:1. An open and positive atmosphere plays an important role in improving principals’ job satisfaction; moreover, principals’ instructional leadership in elementary and junior high schools can influence the school atmosphere. 2. Female principals perceive that they are more likely to implement instructional leadership than male ones, and principals with higher teaching experience are more often engaged in instructional leadership than those with lower teaching experience. 3. Principals with higher working experience perceive the open school atmosphere more than those with lower working experience, and there are significant differences in school atmosphere among different educational stages.4. Principals with higher working experience and elder principals are more satisfied with their jobs than those with lower working experience and younger principals.5. The relationships among the principals’ instructional leadership, the school atmosphere, and their job satisfaction are positive. The principals’ instructional leadership affects their job satisfaction through the school atmosphere. School atmosphere belongs to full mediation in the relationship between principals’ instructional leadership and their job satisfaction.6. Junior high school principals are most affected by instructional leadership, school atmosphere, and job satisfaction. The instructional leadership of elementary school principals has the greatest influence on their job satisfaction before being mediated by the school atmosphere. The instructional leadership of elementary and junior high school principals has a significant effect on the school atmosphere. The reason why the variation occurs is that teacher’s autonomy and professionalism are different. Moreover, external factors like the school’s nature and scenario also contribute to the difference.To sum up, the school atmosphere is the most important factor in the influence of principals' teaching leadership and school atmosphere on principals' job satisfaction. Principals at different levels of education need to create an open and positive school atmosphere in different ways to enhance their job satisfaction and school effectiveness. According to the conclusion, relevant suggestions are put forward for the reference of educational administrative authorities, school principals, and future researchers.

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教學領導, 學校氣氛, 校長工作滿意度, 結構方程模型, 教學與學習調查(TALIS), Instructional leadership, School atmosphere, Principals' job satisfaction, Structural equation modeling, Teaching and learning international survey (TALIS)

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