國外逆向抵押貸款執行經驗-台灣銀行業推行「以房養老」模式之探討

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2020

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台灣已經步入高齡社會,退休後的生活安排,成為越來越重要的話題。以台灣房屋自有率高達8.4成的環境下,「以房養老」也成為一個日漸受到矚目的選項。近年來我國因社會環境的變遷,婚育觀念創新及生活條件的改善,致產生高齡化與少子化雙重問題日趨嚴重,加以年長者大部分有「在宅養老」、「在宅老化」、「起家厝不能賣」、「有土斯有財」等傳統觀念,老年人口的照護安養的議題受到關注。為解決此養老問題,我國於民國101年推出公益型的以房養老制度,不僅有助於資產的活化,亦有利於提振長者的消費,改善生活品質。尤其我國已逐漸高齡化、少子化的社會,政府更應鼓勵銀行於風險可控制前提下積極辦理以房養老貸款,讓高齡人口族群能利用此機制達到自食其力,以減輕子女的生活負,實為政府、銀行及高齡長者三贏局面。 公益型的以房養老制度,推出時定位為社會福利的一環,惟面臨預算限制,故當初設計申貸條件、資格較為嚴苛,申貸不易通過核准,辦理成效不彰,屆期不再續辦。國內銀行於民國104年改推出商業型「以房養老」貸款,定位為銀行貸款商品,依行政院金融監督管理委員會統計,至2019年12月底止,全國銀行自2015年推出商業型「以房養老」貸款以來,承做4,080件,核貸總額度228億元,每年呈大幅成長,顯見國人並不排斥以房養老方式籌措養老金。根據內政部房屋徵收統計,2018 年全國房屋持有人年齡集中於45歲以上,其中65歲以上老人持有了全國近三成,約256戶(853.9萬戶*0.3=256萬戶),銀行承作此項貸款尚有很大的成長空間。 本研究蒐集以房養老相關文獻,考慮台灣社會背景,並參考各國制度、現況及本國各銀行目前相關貸款條件,祈得到本論文之結論並對國內目前以房養老貸款發展情形提出改善建議與願景。
Abstract Taiwan has entered the stage of aging society, and life arrangements after retirement have become an important topic. With the housing ownership rate in Taiwan as high as 84%, "care for the elderly" has become an increasingly attractive option. In recent years, due to the changes in the social environment, the changing concept of marriage and childbearing and the improved living conditions have exacerbated the existing problem of aging population and declining birth rate. Besides, most of the elderly have traditional concepts such as "stay at your own house when getting old", "aging at home", "can’t sell your root" and "property ownership represents your wealth." The issue of care and support for the elderly is getting more attention. In order to solve this problem, Taiwan introduced a public welfare housing support system in 2012. It not only contributed to the asset activation but also boosted the consumption of the elderly, which further improved their life quality. In particular, Taiwan has entered the stage of aged society with low birth rate, the government should encourage banks to actively handle reverse mortage loans under the premise of controllable risks. Hence,the elderly can use this mechanism to achieve self-reliance, so as to ease the burden on children’s lives. This is for sure a win-win situation for the government, banks and older adults. The public welfare housing support system was introduced as a part of social welfare, but it faced budget constraints. Therefore, the original design of loan application conditions and qualifications was more stringent, and it was not easy to apply for a loan. do. Domestic banks re-launched commercial housing reverse mortages in 2015, positioning them as bank loan products. According to the statistics from the Financial Supervision and Administration Commission of the Executive Yuan, as of the end of December 2019, there has bee 4,080 contracts since the product was launched, and the total amount of approvals has reached 22.8 billion TWD, which has grown significantly each year. It is clear that Taiwanese are interested in this approach to raise pensions. According to the statistics from Ministry of the Interior, most of the house owners are at the age of 45 or above as of 2018. Among them, nearly 30% are the elderly over 65 years old. There is still much room for growth for this loan. This study incorporates relevant literature on housing reverse mortages, referencing Taiwan’s society, the systems and current conditions in different countries as well as the current relevant loan conditions of banks in Taiwan. Hopefully the conclusion in the thesis could propose improvements and visions for the current development of housing reverse mortages in Taiwan.

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高齡社會, 以房養老, 在宅養老, 在宅老化, 公益型, 商業型, aging society, pension by house, pension at home, aging at home, Public welfare type, commercial type

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