干擾性行為疾患學童於師生互動之社會訊息處理歷程研究

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2005

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本研究以Crick和Dodge (1994)社會訊息處理歷程模式為研究架構,以教師要求互動情境,探討干擾性疾患學童與一般學童在社會訊息處理歷程的差異。研究對象以臺北市三所國小一到三年級同意參與研究的男性學童為主,先請級任教師填寫問題行為篩選量表並進行訪談,然後從各年級篩選符合ADHD症狀、ADHD和ODD症狀的受試者各十一名,再從其班上選取父母教育程度相當的一般學生為對照組。以自編情境影片、晤談表和訪談流程為訪談工具,進行半結構式晤談,瞭解學童在線索編碼、線索分析、目標設定、反應搜尋、反應決定等步驟之處理,在資料蒐集後進行質性與量化分析。茲將各類型學童社會訊息處理歷程研究結果分述如下: ADHD、ADHD和ODD、一般學童於社會訊息處理步驟有部分差異。其在學習指導和不當行為指導情境,於訊息編碼、初始目標設定步驟有顯著差異,替代反應決定步驟也有差異。但在線索分析、替代反應搜尋、初始反應決定步驟,則隨情境而有不同差異。在替代目標設定、初始反應搜尋、反應選擇等步驟則無顯著差異。 各類型學童於社會訊息處理歷程有差異。「知覺-分析-轉化」思考歷程,一般、ADHD學童較多元,ADHD和ODD學童較主觀負面消極。「搜尋-決定」的反應歷程差異不大,都較積極正向。從思考到反應的歷程,一般學童較正向一致,ADHD學童歷程多元但消極,ADHD和ODD學童歷程單一卻較負向衝突。 綜合各類型學童社會訊息處理歷程,以一般學童較正向一致,顯示其與教師互動行為表現較好。ADHD和ODD學童則較為負向、衝突、不一致,顯示其與教師互動摩擦較多。 根據上述研究結果,本研究對實務工作與未來研究方向提出幾點建議。
Based on the model of social information processing proposed by Crick and Dodge (1994), this study investigated scenarios in which teachers requested students, to discuss the difference of children with and without disruptive behavior in terms of their social information processing. The subjects of the study were boys in the first to third grades of three elementary schools in Taipei City who volunteered to participate. The teachers first completed Behavior Problem Checklists regarding the filtering mechanisms they used to identify disruptive behavior in students and were then interviewed. From each grade, there were eleven ordinary children, eleven with ADHD and eleven with ADHD and ODD compared with a control group of ordinary students having similar parents’ educational background. Through self-produced videotapes, interview charts and interview procedures, semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand the information processing of children, including the processes of encoding, interpretation of cues, clarification of goals, response access, and response decision. The data was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results yielded differences in the social information processing of children with disruptive and non-disruptive behavior, as follows. There is a partial difference in the social information processing among ordinary children,children with ADHD, ADHD and ODD. In these scenarios of academic teaching and behavior correcting, significant difference was found in the procedures of encoding, and initial clarification of goals. The substitutive reaction in the response decision process was also different. Yet, in terms of the interpretation of cues, the substitutive reaction in response access, and the initial reaction of response decision, we found these all differ from scenario to scenario. No significant difference was found in procedures of clarification of substitutive goals, initial response access, or response selections among the groups of children. We found that differences existed in the social information processing among the groups of children. The children’s thinking process of “awareness- analysis- transformation” demonstrated that children with ADHD showed a greater diversity of thinking patterns, whereas children with ADHD and ODD tended to be more objective, negative, and passive. The reactive process of “response access and decision” showed less difference among the groups of children, all tended to be positive. Within the process from thinking to reaction, we found ordinary children were more positive and consistent, while children with ADHD showed greater diversity yet tend to be more passive, and children with ADHD and ODD showed a single pattern tending to be more negative and conflicting. In conclusion, in terms of the social information processing of these different groups of children, the ordinary children were more positive and consistent, and their interactions with teachers appeared better. The children with ADHD and ODD were more negative, conflicting and inconsistent, and their interactions with teachers appeared to be more conflict-ridden. According to the above-mentioned results, several suggestions regarding practical works and direction for future research were made.

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注意力缺陷及干擾性行為疾患學童, 師生互動, 社會訊息處理歷程, children with attention deficit and disruptive behavior disorders, teacher/student interactions, social information processing

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