打造音樂家的夢—提琴學習者的特質與學習生涯之探討 Building the Dreams of Musician:Exploring the Characteristics and Learning Experiences of Gifted Young String Players

摘要 本研究的目的在探討音樂資優者的音樂特質與學習生涯的發展。九位年齡四十歲以下的提琴學習者者接受訪談,他們皆在國內接受過音樂資優教育,目前都從事音樂工作或在音樂研究所攻讀碩士。本研究透過深度訪談,根據紮根理論進行資料分析。本論文包括五大部分:音樂資優者的音樂才能與氣質、學習生涯的過程與特色及國內社會脈絡對古典音樂家的影響。 本研究主要發現如下: 典型的音樂資優者的發展必須從小接受音樂的啟蒙教育,並且大多出生在喜愛音樂的家庭。他們必須學習許多音樂專業課程,從幼稚園到研究所可分為四個階段。提琴學習者者通常具有比他人更具有音樂天份,尤其在視唱聽寫部分。此外,他們在演奏方面,台風穩健,音樂表達力強,能吸引觀眾。國內音樂資優班所提供的音樂專業課程對他們的樂器演奏技巧、音樂素養等有很大的幫助。提琴學習者認為樂器指導教師的教學重點為:國小著重基礎奠定,國中著重鞏固基礎,高中加強音樂表達力,大學與研究所重視樂曲的詮釋與音樂家生涯體驗。他們知覺的教師教學風格有十種:(1)傳統以基礎練習為重,(2)重視期末大曲子的練習,(3)善用舉例方式,(4)非主流型,(5)以比賽為重的積極型,(6)強調樂曲表現,(7)鼓勵學生參加國際音樂營,(8)尊重學生意願,(9)鼓勵用腦思考樂曲的表現,(10)身教與精神感召。他們與樂器指導教師的關係方面,仍以下對上的服從關係居多;有些教師擅長激發他們的學習動機,也會關心他們未來的發展。學校求學階段是他們養成練琴習慣的階段,也是決定音樂生涯的關鍵時期。 在國內,因為音樂班設班有限,在升學壓力下產生下列現象:(1)補習音樂專業技巧與知識,(2)同時兩個老師教相同的樂器,(3)以長時間練一首大曲子的應考技巧。提琴學習者者在大學階段,普遍透過接案演出(接case )來累積他們的演奏經驗與賺錢。他們的家庭也形成獨特文化:正面的影響是營造家庭支持學音樂的氣氛,包括金錢、時間的挹注;負面的影響,則包括干涉學校行政、過度尋求名師及看重競賽成績。他們在學習音樂的歷程中,所遇到關鍵事件包括愉快與不愉快的經驗,不過他們仍以自己的努力是否足夠來詮釋關鍵事件對他們的影響。目前國內的大環境欠缺對古典音樂的支持,主要是因為學校音樂教育與音樂資優教育脫節,導致古典音樂會觀眾來源有限。此外,音樂資優者要開演奏會,需考慮曲目是否大眾化,演出者的外貌與魅力也是重要因素。 最後,根據本研究的發現,研究者提出若干建議,企盼對音樂資優教育的目標和努力的方向有所澄清與導正。
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to explore the development of the characteristics and the learning experiences of gifted young string players in Taiwan. Nine musicians, under the age of forty who had been accepted into music program for the gifted, were invited to discuss the development of their careers. In-depth interviews were conducted and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The findings of this study indicated that the training of the string players depends on five elements: their music abilities, music temperament, learning processes, features of their learning experiences and the influence of the social context of Taiwan on the classical musicians. The main findings were as follows: The string players were musically more talented than their peers especially in sight-reading when singing and auditory skills. They were also found to appeal to audience with distinct music interpretation and solid performing style. These individuals typically began music training at a very early age, came from a music-loving families, and took a great deal of music lessons. The special program was perceived to help them acquire performing skills and music literacy. The learning processes can be divided into four stages from kindergarten to graduated school. The instruction foci at different levels were also identified as basic skills acquired at elementary school, skill perfecting in junior high school, expressiveness in senior high school and interpretation and performing careers in university and graduate school. Furthermore, ten teaching styles were found: (1) focusing on basic skills, (2) performing big musical pieces for final examination, (3) explaining effectively with examples, (4) exhibiting alternative styles, (5) encouraging students to enter contests, (6) stressing music expression, (7) encouraging participation in international music camps, (8)respecting the interests and decisions of students, (9) encouraging students to interpret music on their own, as well as (10) serving as role models and inspiring students to dedicate themselves to music. In order to pass competitive entrance examination so as to be admitted into one of the limited number of music departments, students adopted some special strategies, including (1) taking intensive music courses, (2) learning a musical instrument from two teachers at the same time, (3) practicing an important piece for one year so as to master it. After entering university, music majors commonly accept outside work to accumulate performing experiences and make money. Parents tended to invest a great deal time and money to facilitate learning on the part of their children, while interfering with school administration, seeking well- known instructors and overemphasizing contest results. Behavior of this kind has tended to create “skewed music cultures” in some families. Consequently, the string players accumulated both happy and unhappy experiences throughout their studies. However, the impact of these experiences depends on how much efforts they put in. Because general music education and the music program for the gifted were not well integrated, Taiwan society fails to provide sufficient support to classical music. As a result, the lack of classical music aficionados in Taiwan forces performers to reconsider the popularity of their repertoire as well as the impact of their appearance and personal charisma over the audiences. Suggestions are forwarded concerning the goals of music program for the musically talented based on the findings of this study.