巴旺霍爾語時、體、示證、情態範疇的形態句法

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2021

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巴旺話分佈於四川省甘孜州丹巴縣巴旺、聶嘎兩鄉,隸屬於漢藏語系羌語支嘉戎語組霍爾語群的中部霍爾語。本文是首次對巴旺話進行深度描寫的第一手研究,主要致力於時、體、示證、情態四個範疇的探討。第一章揭示本文的研究動機與方法,並回顧既有文獻。第二章是歷史背景,主要對「霍爾」的名義作詳細的考察,也兼及「嘉戎」族群的簡介,並概述丹巴縣和巴旺鄉的沿革。第三章音系,窮盡式討論巴旺話的複輔音與韻母結構,同時也述及少數的超音段特徵。第四章形態,略陳名詞的幾種構詞形態,分析代詞的內部結構,並兼述附於此二者之數與格標記;至於較複雜的動詞形態,則分構形、構詞兩節詳說。第五章時與體,在田阡子、孫天心(2019)對中部霍爾語格西話的研究基礎上,以構式為綱領充分考察巴旺相關詞綴或助動詞所具有的功能。時範疇方面,由於非完整體可區分過去與非過去,因此從原則上說巴旺話具有時態。體範疇方面,巴旺的特點之一是定向位移動詞保留了完整的異根交替現象。第六章示證,巴旺話共有「後知」、「新知」、「親歷」三個後綴,本文除致力描寫其本身功能外,也嘗試探討示證標記與時—體範疇的互動關係。第七章情態,實質分為語氣與情態後綴兩部份,前者包括陳述、疑問、非實然三種語氣,後者則論及五個情態後綴及其相關構式。第八章結論,總結全文成果並提出未來研究展望。
Bawang dialect is spoken in Dpa’dbang Township and Nyaga Township of Rongbrag County, Dkarmdzes Prefecture, Sichuan Province; it belongs to Central Horpa, under Horpic cluster, Rgyalrongic subgroup, Qiangic Branch, Sino-Tibetan Family. For the first time, the present thesis describes the grammar of Bawang in depth with firsthand fieldwork data, focusing mainly on tense-aspect, evidentiality, mood and modality. Chapter 1 introduces the motivation and methodology of the study, and reviews previous literature. As a historical background, Chapter 2 recapitulate the term “Hor(pa)” from the diachronic perspective, as well as the term “Rgyalrong,” with which the Bawang people identify themselves. In addition, the modern history of Rongbrag and Dpa’dbang is briefly summarized. The phonology of Bawang is elaborated in Chapter 3, in order to provide prerequisite knowledge for the following linguistic description. The structures of consonant clusters in the onset and the combinations of vowels and codas in the rhyme are discussed exhaustively, and the marginal suprasegmental feature is also mentioned. The main topic of Chapter 4 is the morphology of noun, pronoun and verb in Bawang, but two important types of clitics, i.e. the number marker and the case marker, are included as well. Chapter 5 accounts for tense-aspect. Based on the findings of Tian& Sun (2019), the author expounds thoroughly the functions of relevant affixes and auxiliaries in Bawang. With respect to tense, since past imperfective and non-past imperfective are distinguished formally, Bawang is a tensed language in principle. As for aspect, one of the characteristics of Bawang is the completely preserved suppletive paradigm of aspectual distinctions for the orientationally specified motion verbs. Chapter 6 focuses on evidentiality. There are three evidential suffixes in Bawang, i.e. hindsight, immediate and past direct. Besides the basic function of these markers, the interaction between evidentilaity and tense-aspect is also touched. Chapter 7 deals with modality, and the content is divided into two main parts, that is, moods and modal suffixes. For the former, the declarative, the interrogative and the irrealis are discussed; for the latter, five modal suffixes and the constructions where they appear are introduced. Concluding remarks and future prospect are given in Chapter 8.

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巴旺話, 中部霍爾語, 嘉戎語組, 時—體, 示證, 情態, Bawang, Central Horpa, Rgyalrongic subgroup, Tense-aspect, Evidentiality, Modality

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