天下通禮:明代賓禮的流傳與域外實踐的紛爭

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2018-06-??

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國立台灣師範大學歷史硏究所
National Taiwan Normal University Department of History

Abstract

本文透過傳鈔與域外實踐兩方面,從文本到實況,檢視明代賓禮是如何構築近世中國與域外的禮儀秩序。首先,透過梳理正德、萬曆《大明會典》,以及《禮部志稿》、《使職文獻通編》等政典,揭示「洪武賓禮」作為「祖制」不可撼動的地位, 以至範式由「賓禮」轉移至「蕃國禮」的意義。其次,則以域外實踐的情況作為呼應,以洪武前期賓禮儀注為基礎的《藩國儀注》於朝鮮產生重大影響, 往後就迎誥、迎敕等自行釐定的儀注,莫不以此為據。同時,在「五拜三叩頭」、「賜祭與冊封」次序等禮儀爭端中,更成為重要的援引,甚或足以駁斥明朝使臣的主張。凡此種種,均見「洪武賓禮」不論於「九州」或是「四夷」都有舉足輕重的影響,實為「天下通禮」。
This paper examines how guest ritual helped to shape the tributary system of Ming dynasty China. It is divided into two main parts. The first section looks at several key texts, including The Collected Statutes of the Ming Dynasty, from the Zhengde (1506-1521) and Wanli (1572-1620) eras.These texts reveal the critical role played by the Hongwu Protocols throughout the Ming dynasty. The second part of the paper describes theways in which guest ritual influenced interactions between the Ming courtand foreign nations. In particular, it considers the set of protocols sent byMing Taizu (Hongwu Emperor) to Chōsen in 1370. Known collectively as Beon’guk Euiju, these protocols became the foundation in Chōsen of all sorts of guest rituals relating to China. In addition to Chōsen, other vassal states of China observed a similar set of rituals. Thus the Hongwu Protocols might also be characterized as a Common Protocol.

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