臺灣與日本小學道德課程與教學之個案研究

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2015

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本研究旨在探討臺灣與日本的道德教育觀、道德課程內容、道德規範教學以及學校道德環境的異同。臺灣與日本兩國的教育體制隨著時代變遷,也不斷改變。兩國的文化、環境、教育與語言等並不同,但在教育與課程改革方面,兩國都面臨相同的重要課題,即「如何實施道德教育」。 臺灣在九年一貫課程實施之後,道德課從單科轉成融入在各領域之中,但因為升學主義盛行,也引起了融入即消失的爭議。而日本的「寬裕教育」時期對道德教育進行重大的改革,不過卻因為霸凌、高自殺率及PISA成績排名降低,導致「寬裕教育」停止實施,並開始討論未來是否需將道德列為正式科目。臺灣與日本皆重視道德教育,但是社會、文化、課程及教學方法不同,也產生不同樣貌。   為了達成研究目的,本研究以台灣與日本國小六年級各一個班級與一名導師為對象,以個案研究取向的質性研究,包含教室觀察、訪談以及檔案文件分析等方式蒐集資料。首先瞭解台灣與日本教師的道德教育觀,再分析台灣與日本小學道德課程的內容與教學實施,進而比較台灣與日本兩國小學道德教育在道德教育觀、課程、教學實踐以及學校環境營造的異同。最後依據研究結果,對臺日師資培育、台日道德課程以及後續研究提出建議。   本研究的主要發現有五:一、臺日教師的道德教育觀有文化上的差異;二、臺日道德課程和制度上具有融入與分科的差異;三、臺日道德教學關注焦點在道德知識與道德行動具有差異;四、臺日學校的道德環境兩國相似性高;以及五、臺日社會道德氛圍具有個體價值觀與團體榮譽感的差異。
The major purpose of this study was to explore the differences and similarities of moral education on the issues of teacher’s moral educational perspectives, moral curriculum, moral instruction, and moral environment between Taiwan and Japan. The educational systems of Taiwan and Japan have been changing along with the rapid social changes. Taiwan’s and Japan's culture, environment, education and language are different from each other, yet both are facing with an important issue on educational and curriculum reforms, that is “how to implement moral education.” In Taiwan, moral lesson was no longer a separate subject, but integrated into the teaching of all subject domains after the curriculum reform for Grade 1-9 implemented in 2001. However, it has aroused controversy on “integrating or disappearing” moral education under the prevailing atmosphere of credentialism.In Japan, the period (1998-2010) of “relaxed and ample education” (not so tight education) was a very representative curriculum reform for moral education.However, it was ended in 2010 because the bullying and high suicide rate and other social problems cannot be solved, and also because of the declining of PISA ranking. The moral lesson has been considered whether to be established as a formal subject in the future. Both Taiwan and Japan take moral education seriously, but the moral education outcomes appear differently because of different social, cultural contexts, and curriculum and teaching methods. This study adopted a case study approach of qualitative research via classroom observations, teacher interviews and documentary analysis providing significant information to achieve the research purpose. The participants include two classroom teachers and students of grade 6 at Taiwanese and Japanese elementary schools. This study first reviewed the moral educational perspectives of Taiwanese and Japanese teachers, and then analyzed moral curriculum, moral instruction, and school moral environment. Finally, this study provided some suggestions for Taiwanese and Japanese moral education and further research based on the findings.   This study revealed five main findings including: (1) the moral educational perspectives of Taiwanese and Japanese teachers are culturally different; (2) the moral curricula of Taiwan and Japan are different in all-subject integrating or single moral subject including; (3) the foci of moral instruction of Taiwan and Japan are different in moral knowledge or moral practices; (4) the school moral environments of Taiwan and Japan are highly similar; and (5) the moral atmospheres of Taiwan and Japan societies are different in individualism orientation or collectivism orientation.

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道德教育, 臺灣道德課程, 日本道德課程, 道德教學, 道德規範, moral education, moral curriculum of Taiwan, moral curriculum of Japan, moral instruction, moral norms

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