白團與國軍的再教育

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2019

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1949年蔣介石在大陸失敗後,美國決定放棄蔣介石。失去美國援助的蔣介石,仍想要反攻大陸。他決定選擇以台灣為基地,並開始計劃如何反攻大陸。為了達成目標,他選擇秘密聘用日本教官來訓練國軍,即是「白團」(日籍軍事顧問團)。 在反攻大陸之前,蔣介石必須要先止住國軍潰敗的士氣。為此,他創辦「革命實踐研究院」,重新訓練黨政軍人才,統一彼此的思想。並讓白團於圓山訓練軍官,教育「武士道」精神和三軍聯合作戰。不過這一切卻在1951年「美國軍事顧問團」來臺以後改變,白團在美國的壓力下,改成地下化運行,繼續祕密的訓練國軍。 白團能夠持續存在,與蔣介石反攻大陸的目標有關。美國雖然因為韓戰開始援助臺灣,但並不希望蔣介石反攻大陸,更限縮國軍的自由空間。反之,白團能提供蔣介石反攻大陸的計畫想定,與相關的戰略人才培養,讓蔣介石能夠持續得到符合他需求的軍人,亦即一批具有相同知識背景的將軍。這是在大陸時期,國軍無法實現的目標。自八年抗戰以來,國軍的將軍背景複雜,且多未受過正式的軍官教育,往往造成指揮的困擾。這也是造成丟失大陸的重要原因。 不過當1969年「三軍大學戰爭學院」成立以後,代表著國軍有能力自主培養一名合格的將軍。白團的階段性任務也至此完結,此後,白團僅剩團長白鴻亮留在國軍服務,直到1979年因病去世,白團的30年的歷史亦告終。
In 1949 Chiang Kai-shek lost the Chinese mainland, and U.S’s aid. But he still wanted to return to the mainland. He chose Taiwan as the base, planning how to return to the mainland. In order to achieve his goal, he secretly hired Japanese officer, named the " Baituan " (Japanese military advisers), to train the Military. To return to the mainland, Chiang Kai-shek must reestablish the morale of military.he founded " Sun Yat-sen Institution on Policy Research and Development ", retraining the party and government personnel and unifying each other's ideology. The Baituan trained officers in Yuanshan, educating them the spirit of " Bushido " and commanding joint operations. However, all of this changed after the " Military Assistance Advisory Group, MAAG" came to Taiwan in 1951. Under the pressure of the United States, the Baituan’s system turned underground and continued to secretly trained the officers. The Baituan continued to exist because relating to Chiang Kai-shek's goal of return to the mainland. Although the United States assisted Taiwan because of the Korean War, it did not hoped Chiang Kai-shek return to the mainland and limit the free space of ROC’s military operations. On the contrary, the Baituan provided the strategic plan of returning to the mainland, and the training of relevant strategic talents, so that Chiang Kai-shek could get officers who meet his needs, thus a group of generals with the same knowledge background. A goal that the Military could not achieve before they lost the mainland. Durning the Second Sino-Japanese War, the generals of the Military have a complex background, many of them didn’t received formal military education, often causing command troubles. This is also an important reason why they loss of the mainland. However, when the " Armed Forces University Of Army War College " was established in 1969, it represented the ability of the Military to independently train a qualified general. The stage mission of the Baituan was completed. After that, only Bai Hongliang, the leader of the Baituan, continued to serve the Military until his death in 1979. The 30-year history of the Baituan finally ended.

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白團, 國軍, 蔣介石, 革命實踐研究院, 反攻大陸, “Baituan”, Republic of China Armed Forces, Chiang Kai-shek, “Sun Yat-sen Institution on Policy Research and Development”, Return to the Mainland

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