病菌概念與心智模式--學生與成人對病毒與細菌的瞭解

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2011

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本研究研究以質性研究的觀點探索成人與學生對於病菌的概念與呈現的心智模式類型。生物教育的研究焦點經常專注在學齡中的學生,但對於成人病菌概念的研究文獻稀少,因此本研究期望能為關於成人與學生病菌概念差異的研究提供參考。 研究以訪談方式進行,並要求受訪者畫出想像中的「病菌」。訪談的文稿及繪圖以兩位研究者各自對研究資料進行編碼,以期獲得較高的研究信度。研究結果發現理組背景的成人比起文組背景成人,保有較接近科學模式的概念。但未曾接觸病毒相關教育的文組背景成人則具有許多的另有概念,成人與高中生間的概念並沒有隨著年齡的增長而越接近科學模式。 此外只有非常少數的成人與學生能夠瞭解病毒的繁殖過程,因此即使能區分病毒與細菌的差異,也不全能以科學的模式進行兩者差異的解釋。本研究歸納出六種心智模式,其中無法區別病毒與細菌的心智模式有:1. 類動物的病菌模式;2.類細菌的病毒模式。能區分病毒與細菌差異的心智模式則有:1.病毒自然發生模式;2.類普恩蛋白的病毒模式;3.準科學模式;4.科學模式。其中只具有科學模式的部分受訪者對抗生素能持有科學概念。
This interpretative study describes the conceptions and mental models that high school students and adults have about bacteria and virus. The studies in the area of biology tend to focus on the young students, only few studies have explored the conceptions of adults. The differences and similarities between students’ and adults’ conceptions are not clear. This study seeks to provide a reference of the comparison between adults and students. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with each of the participants, who were also asked to draw at least two types of germs. The interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. They were coded by two different researchers to ensure agreement on categories and as a measure of inter-rater reliability. The results present the adults who have a scientific background had a greater mscientific conceptions than those who have a liberal arts background . There is no linear progress from young students to adults. Only a few adults and students with science conception can explain the differences between bacteria and virus. In the study, the researcher generalized 6 types of mental models that the participants held. Participants who had animal-like model and bacterial-like model could not distinguish virus from bacteria. Participants who built a watershed between bacteria and virus that had one of the three mental models: spontaneous generation ; prion-like virus and the quasi-science model. But only those who had a science model can tell the differences between virus and bacteria with a science explanation.

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心智模式, 病毒, 細菌, 微生物, mental models, microbes, virus, bacteria

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