融合教育下國小普通班教師班級經營 問題及因應策略之研究

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2016

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本研究旨在探討融合教育下國小普通班教師在班級經營方面所面臨的問題及因應策略。主要的研究目的有三:首先了解普通班教師對融合教育的信念以及對融合教育所做的準備;其次探究融合教育下國小普通班教師班級經營所面臨的問題與困擾;最後了解融合教育下國小普通班教師班級經營所使用的因應策略與問題解決方式。 本研究採質性研究法,研究對象為四位曾任國小融合班級的導師。研究者主要採取個案訪談方式,輔以相關文件與檔案資料進行資料分析與歸納結果。根據文獻探討與研究發現,獲得研究結論如下: 壹、普通班教師以開放的態度面對融合教育,事前所做的準備則包含認識特殊學生、與家長溝通、環境調整與安排。 貳、融合教育下,國小普通班教師班級經營時所面臨的主要問題以及具體應對策略如下: 一、特殊學生的情緒與行為會干擾班級活動,教師可利用正向行為支持、找出適合特殊學生的策略及教導自我監控方法、訂定契約、逐步改進不良行為。 二、處理班級中家長的溝通問題,面對特殊學生家長,教師採取真誠、積極的溝通方式,展現對學生的接納;對一般學生家長則清楚說明如何進行班級經營及對全體學生的教導與努力。 三、班級中同儕互動衍伸的各種問題,教師可利用班級氣氛與向心力增加學生包容性,以及善用「小天使」制度協助特殊學生融入班級,教導特殊學生社交技巧,教導一般學生全班性的同儕關係發展。 四、針對支持系統不足的問題,教師可考慮整合校內資源、尋求同學年教師即時支援,主動向學校提出需求,使教學得以順利進行。 最後根據研究結果,針對國小融合教育班級經,向學校教師、行政人員、師培機構以及未來研究方向等四方面,提出具體建議。
This study aims to discuss the issues that general class teachers in elementary schools come across and the corresponding solutions in class management under inclusive education. There are three parts in the study. First, we discuss the belief that general class teachers hold and their preparation for the inclusive education. The issues and problems that general class teachers come across in class management under the inclusive education are then addressed. Lastly, the corresponding strategies and solutions to the mentioned issues and problems that the teachers can take are discussed. Taking four inclusive class teachers as the research subjects, this study adopted a qualitative approach to conduct the research . The study data was collected from case interviews and the analysis and inductive results from related documents and files. Based on the literature review and research findings, we deducted the conclusion as follows: 1.General class teachers hold an open attitude towards the inclusive education. They preparee for the inclusive education by knowing more about exceptional students, communicating with the parents and rearranging the teaching environment. 2.Under the inclusive education, the main issues that general class teachers may encounter and their corresponding solutions in class management are shown as follows: (1)The emotions and behaviors of exceptional students may interfere the class activities. The possible solutions for such situations include using positive behavior support, finding out the teaching strategies for exceptional students, teaching them the technique of self-supervision and making agreements with them to gradually improve their ill behaviors. (2)As communicating with the exceptional parents, teachers must sincerely and positively show their acceptance towards the exceptional students. As for dealing with the general parents, the teachers need to explain clearly as to how the class management is conducted and prove that the teaching process and the efforts are consistent and fair. (3)Many issues are derived from peer interactions in the class. Teachers can make use of the class atmosphere and coherence to enhance students' understanding towards each other. The "Little Angel" system also helps exceptional students fit in the class better. It equips the exceptional students with social skills; it allows general students to develop class-wide peer relationships. (4)As for the lack of support system, teachers may integrate school resources, seek for other teachers' immediate assistance, make requests to the administrative staff to make the teaching process even smoother. Finally, the practical suggestions for school teachers, teacher education institutions, class arrangements and future search regarding the class management in elementary schools under the inclusive education are brought up based on the research findings.

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國小融合教育, 班級經營, inclusive education for elementary schools, class management

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