視覺對學習拋環動作的影響 Exploring the impact of vision on learning a hoop throwing task

Date
2010
Authors
謝玟娟
Wen-Chuan Hsieh
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Publisher
Abstract
韻律體操是一項兼具力與美的競技運動項目,不僅需要柔軟的身段、優美的體態,還需要配合手持器械的操作,展現熟練的技術;而器械拋接技術是屬於基本能力之一,且零失誤的完美演出往往就是致勝的關鍵仍有待探討。目的:探討在學習拋環動作的過程中,是否可藉由不同於傳統的練習方式(閉眼練習),以增進動作表現的穩定度及本體感覺的敏銳度,作為一種更有效的訓練方式。方法:實驗一以四位國內優秀選手進行閉眼練習,並使用威爾考克森檢定比較其前後測表現與運動學參數之差異;實驗二以十六位大專體育相關科系女學生,隨機分成開眼練習組及閉眼練習組,比較其前測、後測及遷移測驗等表現之差異。結果:(一)在整體運動表現方面,專家組及一般組的後測都優於前測,且一般組在練習過後的測驗情境若是開眼的,表現又會更好;(二)在身體肢段之運動學參數部分,專家組的肩關節動作在練習前已具備其協調型態,肘關節動作經過練習後也建立其協調型態,但腕關節動作卻是在閉眼情境的後測較開眼情境穩定;一般組都是需要經過練習之後,才能建立各關節的協調型態,且閉眼組的腕關節動作較開眼組穩定。結論:不論有無經驗的學習者,經過閉眼練習,其拋環表現都會進步。閉眼練習提供一個對拋擲手臂比較敏感的方式,來增進動作的控制能力。
Rhythmic gymnastics is a competitive sport event with strength and beauty. It not only needs flexible and aesthetic body movement, but also operates with apparatus to show the skill. Moreover, the throw techniques are one of the basic capabilities, and a perfect performance is often the key to win the competition, therefore, how to practice the throw technique becomes an important issue. For the throw technique, the proprioception of the throwing arm provides some of the important information for controlling the throwing task. Due to the overpowering nature of the vision, it is possible that the proprioception of the throwing movement can be enhanced by taking away the use of vision when practicing the throw act. Purpose: The study investigated whether we could find a training method during the learning process of hoop throwing task which could enhance the stability of performance and be more sensitive to proprioception. Methods: There were 2 experiments in this study. Experiment 1 examined 4 elite rhythmic gymnasts who practiced the hoop throwing task without vision. The performance outcome and movement kinematics were analyzed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for the pre-test and post-test. Experiments 2 examined 16 female college students majoring in PE related areas, and they were randomly divided into vision and no-vision groups. Results: (1) For the performance outcome, post-tests were better than pre-tests in elite and non-elite groups. For the post tests, the performance of the vision condition was better than that of the no-vision condition in non-elite groups. (2) For the movement kinematics, there was no difference in the shoulder angular displacement after no-vision practice, elbow joint movements were more stable after no-vision practice, and the wrist joint movements were more stable in the no-vision conditions for the elite gymnasts. In non-elite groups, the shoulder and elbow joints movement improved after the practice for both groups, However, the wrist joint movements were more stable for the no-vision practice group. Conclusions: No matter the learners have experience or not, no-vision practice condition facilitated the performance of hoop throwing task. No-vision training provided a more sensitive condition for the control of the throwing arm.
Description
Keywords
本體感覺, 閉眼練習, 運動學參數, 協調型態, proprioception, no-vision training, movement kinematics, coordination pattern
Citation
Collections