不同肌肉收縮型式的活化後增能運動對單次與反覆爆發力表現之影響

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2014

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背景:過去的研究發現,在進行高強度的阻力運動後,可以短時間增加隨後爆發力的表現,並稱此現象為活化後增能作用 (post-activation potentiation, PAP)。多數研究僅探討不同肌肉收縮型式的阻力運動 (PAP運動) 對單一項爆發力表現的影響,或者同一種肌肉收縮型式的PAP運動對不同型式爆發力表現的影響,但目前尚未有研究同時探討PAP運動之肌肉收縮形式對隨後不同型式爆發力項目的影響。目的:探討不同肌肉收縮形式之PAP運動,在不同的恢復時間下對單次與反覆爆發力表現的影響。方法:招募12名有規律阻力訓練的健康男性 (年齡 22.7 ± 2.1歲),以重複量數與平衡次序之實驗設計,於史密斯儀器上進行5秒等長最大收縮或動態收縮 (3 × 90%1RM) 的蹲舉運動,並在不同肌肉收縮形式之PAP運動前、運動後恢復第8與18.5分鐘進行立定跳遠或40公尺衝刺之爆發力測驗,並記錄其運動表現。統計分析以重複量數二因子變異數分析 (收縮形式×時間) 考驗在不同肌肉收縮形式之PAP運動與不同恢復時間下,單次或反覆爆發力表現的差異,接著將單次與反覆爆發力表現轉換為標準分數 (Z-score) ,考驗在動態或等長收縮PAP運動後,在不同時間下,不同爆發力表現的差異。顯著水準皆定為 p ≤ .05。結果:進行等長收縮之PAP運動後,單次爆發力 (立定跳遠) 表現在恢復18.5分鐘後顯著提升 (18.5分鐘 vs. 前測,252.67 ± 5.42 vs. 249.08 ± 5.37 公分,p< .05)。另外,進行動態收縮之PAP運動後,反覆爆發力 (40公尺衝刺) 表現在恢復18.5分鐘後顯著提升 (18.5分鐘 vs. 前測, 0.19 ± 1.05 vs. -0.04 ± 1.01,p < .05)。結論:動態收縮之PAP運動可能對反覆爆發力表現較有幫助,而等長收縮之PAP運動可能對單次爆發力表現較有幫助。
Background: Previous research has demonstrated that high-intensity resistance exercise can enhance subsequent power performance. This phenomenon is referred to post-activation potentiation (PAP). Most studies have either examined the effects of different types of muscle contraction of resistance exercise (PAP exercise) on only one power performance, or the effects of the same type of muscle contraction PAP exercise on different types of power performance. However, no study has yet to investigate the interactions between different type of muscle contraction PAP exercise and different types of power performance. Purpose: To examine the effects of different types of muscle contraction PAP exercise on single bout and repeated power performance at different recovery times. Methods: Twelve resistance-trained males (22.7 ± 2.1, age) were recruited and performed 5 seconds of isometric maximal voluntary contraction squat or dynamic squat (3 × 90% 1RM) on smith machine using repeated measures and counterbalance designs. Participants performed 40 meters sprint or horizontal jump before and 8 and 18.5 minutes after PAP exercise. Jump distance and sprint time were recorded and assessed. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (contraction × time) was used to determine the differences in single bout or repeated power performance under difference types of muscle contraction PAP exercise at difference recovery times. In addition, data obtained from the single bout and repeated power performance were converted to standard scores (Z-score). A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (power performance × time) was used to determine differences between single bout and repeated power performance after dynamic or isometric PAP exercise. A significance level was set at p ≤ .05. Results: After isometric PAP exercise, significant increases in single bout (horizontal jump) power performance were observed at 18.5 minutes (18.5 mins vs. pre-test, 252.67 ± 5.42 vs. 249.08 ± 5.37 cm, p< .05). After dynamic PAP exercise, significant increases in repeated (40 meters) power performance were observed at 18.5 minutes (18.5 mins vs. pre-test, 0.19 ± 1.05 vs. -0.04 ± 1.01, p < .05). Conclusion: While dynamic PAP exercise may have greater benefits on repeated power performance, isometric PAP exercise may have greater benefits on single bout power performance.

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活化後增能作用, 阻力運動, 等長最大自主收縮, post-activation potentiation, resistance exercise, isometric maximal voluntary contraction

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