「玄解」《世說》:以「海岱清士」、「見此張緩」兩則為示例

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2021-12-??

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國立台灣師範大學國文學系
Department of Chinese, NTNU

Abstract

本文先從《世說‧賞譽》第六十五則與《世說‧文學》第七十八則之關鍵問題:「海岱清士如何解?」、「見此張緩如何解?」入手,筆者將歷來兩則多重詮釋的分歧現象,分別統整出三段理解歷程與三種詮釋類型:前者一為「透過互見法考辨文獻,以傳統的『清流』定位『清士』」、二為「從人格與士風別之以方正之流及不羈之清」、三為「不必有與不必無的徐寧是以清為玄的名士」;後者一為「史評:孫綽之人品評價」,二為「文賞:文章之法」,三為「玄解:體玄的人格理想」;繼而再針對此一詮解的轉進與探索的內涵,進行其異同得失之比較,以開啟《世說》詮釋學的視域。藉由這兩個示例的深究微觀,筆者希冀能發揮以一舉多的效用,從而召喚更多後繼者,去發現《世說》文本與《世說》詮釋文獻之詮釋循環中仍潛藏著有待挖掘的「玄」味與「玄」意,只有當我們認真活在當下,並用心扣問傳統,才能由之發現玄學新語彙,從而激揚出融舊開新的交響及與時俱進的力量,尤深盼本文所體現的論述成果,在建構《世說》詮釋學乃至中國經典詮釋學的實踐之路上,亦能提供一啟示性的案例及具體可參的作法。
This article starts with the 65th story in the chapter of "Compliments" in Shishou and the 78th story in the chapter of "Literature" in it and addresses the two key questions: how to "Haidai qingshi" and how to read "Jian ci zhanghuan". Based on diverse interpretations of the two stories, this paper identifies three stages of understanding and three ways of interpretation. Regarding the three stages, the first one is to delve into the literature through the method of mutual observation, and to position qingshi with the traditional qingliu; the second is a distinction made between personality and morality in order to distinguish the righteous person from the unruly person safeguarding moral; and the third is Xu Ning, who does not stick to having or not having and is a qingshi. Concerning the three ways of interpretation, the first is through a historical review as regards Sun Chuo's character evaluation; the second is based on textual appreciation, which deals with textual composition; and the third one is by an in-depth reading, which examines the embodiment of an ideal personhood. Through the layers of meaning investigations, this study aims to chart a fresh perspective from which to understand Shishuo. Based on the in-depth microcosmic study of these two examples, the author alsoattempts to initiate more studies that seek to discover an interpretation cycle between Shishuo and the commentaries on Shishuo, laying bare the profoundness of xuan taste and xuan meaning. Only when we seriously live in the present can we inquire into the tradition, can we discover new metaphysical vocabulary from it, inspire the creative blending of old and new, and open up new possibilities that help us advance with time. I particularly hope that this work can pave the way for a deeper understanding of Shishuo hermeneutics and for an extension of understanding Chinese classical literature hermeneutics.

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