國小學生的自我效能對神馳效應與學習保留之研究—以三字經紙牌遊戲為例

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2010

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本研究之目的為探討不同三字經遊戲方式中,不同自我效能的學生在神馳效應及學習保留的表現情形。研究採實驗相關研究法,正式研究樣本為高年級學童共209人,其中108人進行三字經一條龍遊戲,另101人進行三字經心臟病遊戲,以瞭解不同自我效能的學童,透過遊戲後所產生的神馳經驗及學習保留是否有顯著差異。 在經歷遊戲前,由導師協助第一次前測,以瞭解學童對三字經內容的先備經驗;在遊戲進行中研究者設計不同遊戲方式,並分別施以「三字經遊戲玩家自我效能量表」、「神馳過程問卷」、「三字經記憶測驗」,以測量出學童遊戲的自我效能、神馳過程狀態和學習後記憶的表現。在遊戲後,研究者施以「國小學童神馳效應量表」,以測量出學童經歷遊戲後的神馳效應狀態,並在一個月後進行三字經追蹤測,以瞭解學習保留的程度。 根據實驗結果分析發現:1.進行三字經一條龍紙牌遊戲的「效能期望」構面顯著高於心臟病遊戲。 2.進行三字經心臟病紙牌遊戲的「控制」構面顯著高於一條龍遊戲。3. 三字經心臟病紙牌遊戲在「第一次遊戲前回憶率」顯著高於一條龍遊戲。4. 三字經一條龍紙牌遊戲中,高低分組自我效能的學童在神馳過程中有顯著差異;高自我效能者易偏向無趣組,低自我效能者易偏向焦慮組。5. 兩種遊戲均顯示,高自我效能的學童在神馳效應上高於低自我效能者。6. 三字經心臟病紙牌遊戲中,高自我效能的學童在學習記憶保留率上高於低自我效能者。7. 兩種遊戲均可顯示,學童神馳過程與其神馳效應有正相關。8. 三字經一條龍紙牌遊戲中,不同神馳過程的學童在長期記憶學習保留率有顯著差異。
The purpose of this piece of research is to discuss the effects on the Flow and the learning retention of students with individual self efficiency. The experiment-correlated method is applied on 209 students in the higher grades in primary schools, in order to understand and analyze the differences of flow experiences and learning retention through playing card games. Among all the 209 participants, 108 students play the three-character one continuous line game while the remaining 101 ones play the three-character heart attack game. Before any experiment started, the class supervisors were requested to assist with the pre-test to comprehend students’ experiences of three-character scriptures and the card game contents. During the game, different playing rules were introduced to the participant. Questionnaires containing the topics of “three-character scripture card game self efficiency scale”, “flow experience questionnaire”, and the “three-character scripture memory test” were to assess the performance of self efficiency, flow experiences, and memory for each. Afertwards, the “element student flow effect scale” was used for evaluating the flow effect status of the participants. Finally, students were requested to complete the three-character scripture test after one month, so that the effects of learning would be examined. The results were concluded as follows after the experiment: 1. Playing the one continuous line game is significantly with higher efficiency expectation of than it is with playing the heart attack one. 2. It is also significantly with high control aspect while playing the heart attack game in comparison with playing the one continuous line game. 3. However, the “First game recall rate” appears to be significantly higher in the heart attack game than in the one continuous line one. 4. There are obvious differences in the Flow experiences of the participants; the group with higher self-efficiency tends to feel bored while the other group with lower self-efficiency shows more tendency in anxiety. 5. Both games show that the higher self efficiency it is with the students, the better flow effects the participants would get. 6. In the heart attack game, students with higher self efficiency show more significant effects on learning retention. 7. Both games show that the flow experiences and the flow effects are positively related. 8. In one continuous line game, students with different flow experiences show significant differences in their long-term memory.

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自我效能, 遊戲方式, 神馳過程, 神馳效應, 學習保留, Self-Efficiency, Flow Effect, Learning Retention

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