拳腿之外:散打的致勝之道

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2021

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比賽表現分析可以提供運動員的表現回饋,也可作為教練員在設計體能訓練、專項訓練計畫的基礎。散打是一種有體重分級的技擊對抗競賽。不同級別的選手除了在身體結構與生理指標上有不同外,使用的技法、戰術也有差異,這些差異可能對競賽的內容與比賽結束方式有影響。本研究目的在探討高水準男子散打競賽不同級別及勝敗選手間的表現差異。本研究以2016-2019四年間的國際男子散打競賽11個量級分為三個級別共125場、249局比賽為研究範圍,以標記比賽影片方式,紀錄每局比賽的技法表現與比賽結束方式進行比賽表現的分析。標記的內容經整理後以卡方獨立性檢定檢驗級別與比賽結束方式的關聯性,並以二因子混合設計變異數分析檢驗級別與勝敗對相關比賽表現的影響。結果顯示比賽結束方式在小級別與得分勝利、中級別與下台勝利有顯著正關聯(p<.001)。小級別選手在技法使用次數上顯著高於中、大級別(p<.001);各級別間的技法、組合的運用有相同的趨勢;勝方選手在平均技法使用次數、摔法使用次數、各摔法動作效果上顯著高於敗方(p<.001)。散打比賽在各技法的使用及攻擊方式在三個級別有類似的趨勢,顯示散打競賽的特性,但各級別間仍有各自的特色。散打選手的訓練計畫可依級別的特性斟酌調整,並注重各級別選手在技法使用的積極性及各摔法技術的運用能力。
Performance analysis may be used as the basis for providing feedback for athletes and designing the training plans for coaches. Sanda is a form of combat sport that athletes compete in different weight categories. In addition to the differential anthropometric measures and physical conditioning, Sanda athletes of different weight classes may also be characterized with different techniques and tactics. These physical and technical differences may have impact on the performance and the result of the competition. The purpose of this research was to examine the performance differences between winners and losers of the elite Sanda athletes in different weight classes. The video recordings of the Men’s Sanda World Cup and World Championship from 2016 to 2019, which included 249 video recordings (rounds) of 125 matches, were used to record data. The attacking performances and the ways of determining the winner of the match were recorded for the 125 matches. The Chi-Squared test of independence was used to examine the associations between the ways of determining the winner and the weight categories. The 2-way mixed design ANOVAs were used to examine the effects of winner or loser and the weight categories on different attacking performances. The results showed that the scoring win was positively associated with the low weight category and the out-of-bound win was positively associated with the medium weight category (p<.001). There was a higher number of attacks from the fighters of the low weight category than the other two weight categories (p<.001). The ratios of the three attacking techniques (Punching, kicking and throwing) were similar in all weight categories; and winners had more number of attacks, used more number of throw techniques, and were more effective with the throwing techniques than losers (p<.001). Although each weight category had its own attacking characteristics, there was a similar trend in the use of attacking techniques shared by the three weight categories. We suggest that the training program for Sanda athletes should be adjusted based on the characteristics of each weight category. A special emphasis should be placed on the active application of attacking techniques and the ability of applying a variety of throwing techniques in competitions.

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摔法, 體重分級, 勝敗, 表現指標, 標記分析, throwing techniques, weight category, win and loss, performance indicators, notational analysis

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