戰後臺灣山地教育「特殊化階段」教科書之研究─以國語科、社會科為例(1951~1958)

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2015

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教科書是官方指定學校必須教授的讀本書籍,所以教科書常成為國家形塑理想國民的重要工具,任何時期、任何地區的教科書多少都帶有意識形態。本研究嘗試分析1951~1958年專門編輯供山地國民學校原住民學生使用的國語科及社會科教科書,以釐清透過教科書,政府所欲傳達於原住民學生的知識為何?以及政府所欲形塑的原住民學生成何種理想個體?在了解教科書對原住民學生的影響之前,必須對當時教科書的產出有更深入的探討。 教科書的產出,除了依據課程標準外,多少都會受到當時環境政策的影響。戰後,中華民國政府接收臺灣,立即要處理的問題就是去除「日本化」並「中國化」,這是戰後政府在臺灣推動的重大政策。到了1950年代,政府開始針對山地原住民推動「山地平地化」,希冀提高原住民生活水準,已達同平地人生活水平。因此,當時山地教科書中,是否也有涵蓋這兩政策意涵?此外,當時參與教科書編輯的人員,對於編輯適合山地原住民所使用的教科書,其理念及想法又是如何?這些是本研究要處理的問題。 一般教科書研究多著重在解嚴前後,或者是課綱的調整,對於戰後初期關於原住民教育的相關研究並不多,期許本文的探討能彌補對於戰後初期原住民教育研究的不足。
Textbooks are books for instruction which are officially specified by related educational institutions and agencies to be used in the teaching in any branch of study at schools. That is why textbooks are often seen as an important tool for a country to make its nationals into ideal forms. Textbooks in any era and any region contain ideology to some extent. The study was aimed to analyze the textbooks for the teaching in the subjects of Chinese language and social science which were edited and produced between year 1951-1958 in order to find out what kinds of knowledge the government were trying to give students from indigenous ethnical groups, and what kinds of ideal individuals that the government would like to have them become. Before we try to figure out the influence of textbooks onto the students from indigenous ethnical groups, we must have further exploration into the production of textbooks at that time. Besides the accordance with curriculum standards, the production of textbooks is often influenced by the national policy in its time. The national government of ROC reclaimed Taiwan after WWII. The matter of urgency was to remove anything associated with "Japanization" and start "Sinicization", and this was part of the major policy which the government enforced in Taiwan after WWII. In the 1950s, the government started to make "the indigenous people in the mountains live like other nationals in the plains" with the hope of raising the life quality of indigenous people and reaching the same level as other nationals who lived in the plains. We also tried to find out if the textbooks produced for the students from indigenous ethnical groups in the mountains contained these two abovementioned spirits or not, and the ideals and thoughts of the personnel who participated in the production of the textbooks for writing and editing textbooks which were suitable for teaching students from indigenous ethnical groups in the mountains. These were all the issues handled in the study. Most researches and studies on textbooks have their time frames be mainly focused on the periods before and after the lifting of martial law in Taiwan, or the changes in the curriculum guidelines. There are only a few studies on the education for indigenous people at the early time after WWII. It is hoped that the exploration of the study can help in covering the insufficiency of educational researches on indigenous people in Taiwan after WWII.

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原住民, 教科書, 課程標準, 日本化, 中國化, 鄉土教育, indigenous people, textbook, curriculum standard, Japanization, Sinicization, local cultural education

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