日治前期公學校教師的學經歷-以興直公學校教職員履歷書分析為中心(1898-1920)

No Thumbnail Available

Date

2017-12-??

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

國立臺灣師範大學台灣史研究所
Graduate Institute of Taiwan History

Abstract

本文分析新北市新莊國民小學(以下簡稱新莊國小)保存的日治時期教師履歷書,從族群、性別、職位、薪資等不同方面來考察日治前期公學校教師的組成、職歷變化。日治前期,公學校中臺籍教師的人數比日籍教師多,但校長都是日本人。日本籍男教師很多都是在本國即有教職經驗,到殖民地臺灣後,職位、薪資待遇都比原來提高許多,也有外地加給,或退休金加計等制度上的優勢。日籍女教師幾乎都有相當於高等女學校的學歷,但在學校任職的時間大多不長,公學校女童的教育,主要還是依賴臺灣籍女教師。臺灣籍女教師大多是出身於當時唯一的中等女子教育機關-國語學校附屬女學校。日治前期,讀漢文還是很重要的文化象徵意義,許多臺籍男教師都同時接受漢文教育與近代教育。他們具備雙語能力,與殖民政府及地方社會兩方面都持續累積人脈關係,公學校教職是他們的安全氣囊,可進可退,可以留在文官體系中可以依序升遷,要到產業界工作,也有很多機會。從公學校教師的組成,可以發現地方社會中,傳統士紳、有力者,在日本統治以後,得到新政府的拉攏,也得到活用自己知識及影響力的機會。地方上的中上家庭,就是把子女送到公學校讀書,畢業後繼續升學的這一群人。新一代受新教育的青年,在政府的文官體系下,有一定的升遷管道,也有機會、有資本在社會上尋找發達之路。微觀地考察一個鄉下公學校的教師,可以了解到日本在臺灣的統治之所以可以如此順利地軟著陸,這些地方人士的合作,應該具有非常重要的意義。當然,他們也不是單方面地提供協力而已,他們正是最有機會與條件靈活運用交換.仲介機制的人。
This article analyzes the resumes of teachers preserved by the Xing-zhi public Elementary School (now Xinzhuang Elementary School of the New Taipei City) from the period of the Japanese rule. It attempts to understand the demography and the vocational experiences of teachers in public elementary schools from different aspects of ethnicity, gender, rank, and salary. During the early Japanese rule, more teachers were Taiwanese than Japanese in public elementary schools while all the principles were Japanese. Many male Japanese teachers had teaching experience in Japan. Besides receiving the overseas assignment allowance and retirement benefits, their titles and salary were increased after they moved to Taiwan. Female Japanese teachers normally did not stay long in their jobs. Therefore, education of girls in public elementary schools mainly relied on Taiwanese women. The demography of public elementary school teachers shows that the new government made alliance with the local elites, who in turn took advantage to utilize their knowledge and influence. The upper-middle class was formed by people who had their children enrolled in public elementary schools and continued to further their studies. This new generation of youth was allowed career promotion within the civil service system, as well as more chances to succeed in society. A microscopic investigation of teachers in a rural public elementary school will help us understand why Japanese rule of Taiwan could be so smoothly implemented, and how the collaboration of local elites played a significant role. Of course, the elites did not only collaborate but also strategically utilized the opportunity as mediators and negotiators.

Description

Keywords

Citation