兒童休閒認知與休閒參與特性之研究~以星星國小四年級學童為例

Abstract

國小學童的休閒認知與休閒參與對於其將來的休閒態度與行為影響甚大,本研究以星星國小四年級的男女學童共27位為例,來瞭解學童的休閒認知和休閒參與特性。研究對象的學童年齡介於10到11歲,處於兒童發展中、晚期。研究方法先回顧文獻尋找關於休閒與兒童發展的資料,設計符合學童的作業,收集其認知的休閒紀錄,按休閒的「時間」、「活動」、「體驗」三個方向來進行討論,並觀察「家長社經地位」、「性別」這兩個變項對學童休閒認知和休閒參與之差異,最後提供結論與建議。 本研究結果如下: 一、學童自覺有很高的休閒自由,將休閒生活化,認為休閒是有趣好玩的,休閒可以是一種學習,可以家人互動,可以娛樂調劑身心,可以放鬆自己,可以結交朋友。 二、學童參與休閒的時間出現在任何時候,最多的是週末的下午。 三、學童不上學參與的休閒活動多為視聽娛樂,目的是消磨時間,上學時為多人互動的體能活動為主。 四、學童對休閒持有中性偏正面的感覺,大多願意再一次體驗。 五、女童的休閒認知與休閒參與比男童多樣化,家庭社經地位的高低對於學童的休閒認知與休閒參與沒有明顯不同。 針對以上結果,本研究建議: 一、學童的休閒認知與實際休閒參與有落差,學校與家長應在現有條件下提供適當的休閒給學童。 二、加強學童對時間的管理,以有效利用時間體驗休閒。 三、學童的休閒活動過於視聽化、單調化,可多安排不同的活動體驗,以提高休閒品質。 四、對後續研究建議以量化來持續瞭解學童的休閒認知與休閒參與。
Leisure cognition and participation of elementary school-children influence its leisure attitude and behavior of future is very big, this research takes 27 boy and girl school-children of grade four in the ShinShin elementary school as an example, understand school-children leisure cognition and participate characteristic. The school-children age lies in 10-11 years old, being placed in a middle, late childhood. Research method is look back cultural heritage first to look for the data of leisure and children develop, design works to match the children develop, collect the leisure record of its cognition, analysis on "time", "activity" and "experience" three directions of leisure. The research also observes the two variables in "parent position of society ", "gender" to the leisure cognition and participation of children, then inducing the conclusion and supplying suggestions. Reseach a result as follows: One, school-children aware of self have a high leisure freedom, think leisure is life, leisure can be a kind of learning, can with family interactive, can amuse a mind and body, can relax oneself, can make friend. Two, the school-children participate leisure time appear in any time, most of is the afternoon of weekend. Three, when the children don’t go to school, they participate the amusing leisure activity much, the purpose kills time, otherwise they do many the physique activity of person's interaction in school hour. Four, school-children to leisure hold a positive feeling, mostly would like to experience again. Five, leisure cognition and participation of girl is diversify than the boy, parent social position of high and low to leisure cognition and participation have no obviously different. Aim at an above result, this research suggestion: One, the leisure cognition of the school-children with physically leisure participate has a drop, the school and parent should provide an appropriate leisure to the school-children under the existing condition. Two, strengthen school-children's management to time to experience leisure effectively. Three, the leisure activity of school-children is amusing, monotonous, we can arrange different activities more to raise leisure quality. Four, research a suggestion to follow-up by quantity to understand leisure cognition and participation of the school-children.

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Keywords

國小學童, 兒童休閒, 休閒認知, 休閒參與

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