提早入學資優生智力、學業表現及資優特質之追蹤研究—以新竹縣市為例

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2012

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本研究旨在探究提早入學資優生智力、學業表現與資優特質之表現情形。研究對象為新竹縣市九十四至九十九學年度通過鑑定並就讀於新竹縣、市國小的提早入學資優生。調查對象包含70名學生、48名教師及48名家長。 追蹤調查分三階段進行,研究方式分三階段進行,第一階段蒐集提早入學資優生入學鑑定時的測驗分數及基本資料;第二階段調查提早入學資優生入學後1-6年間的智力、學業與資優特質表現並進行資料分析;第三階段針對智力增長組與智力降低組各2位家長進行半結構式訪談。 研究工具包括:魏氏幼兒智力量表修訂版(中文版)、魏氏兒童智力量表第四版(中文版)、國語科成就測驗、國民小學數學科成就測驗以及資優行為觀察量表,所得數據以SPSS 19.0進行分析。 本研究主要發現如下: 一、在智力表現方面,提早入學資優生入學前智力最低為128,最高為155;入學後智力最低為108,最高為161。入學前後的智商以130~144人數最多。所有組合分數以處理速度得分最低。分測驗以類同、常識及圖形設計得分最高;刪除動物與符號替代得分最低。 二、在學業表現方面,提早入學資優生在國語成就測驗及數學成就測驗之表現皆高於PR55,且數學科表現優異的人數比例較高;「智力增長組」之提早入學資優生成績在各科皆優秀。 三、在資優特質表現方面,提早入學資優生得分最高為正向動機、創意思考及情緒表現;最低則為風趣幽默。由訪談發現:「智力增長組」在興趣廣泛、高度專注力、閱讀能力與學習速度四項特質表現突出。 四、在WISC-IV的全量表智商方面,WPPSI¬-R全量表智商133~138的表現高於WPPSI¬-R全量表智商128~132 的表現。指數分數方面,WPPSI¬-R全量表智商133~138在知覺推理指數高於WPPSI¬-R全量表智商128~132和WPPSI¬-R全量表智商139以上的表現。分量表中,男生在算數分量表得分顯著高於女生,提早3個月以上入學者顯著高於提早3個月內入學者;低年段在圖畫概念和數字序列分量表得分顯著高於高年段者;WPPSI--R全量表智商133~138在符號尋找分量表的表現高於WPPSI--R全量表智商128~132 的表現。 五、提早入學資優生在高年段的數學學業表現顯著優於低年段; WPPSI¬-R全量表智商133~138的數學學業表現高於WPPSI¬-R全量表智商139以上的數學學業表現。 六、在資優特質之總分表現,高年段和提早3個月以上入學在教師評量資優特質總表現顯著高於低年段和提早3個月內入學的學生。九個分量表得分方面,女生在教師版的敏感性及情緒表現兩項分量表得分顯著高於男生;男生在家長版幽默風趣分量表得分顯著高於女生;高年段則在分析性思考、創意思考和幽默風趣特質比現優於低年段者。 七、智力增長組在語文理解指數、知覺推理指數、工作記憶指數、類同、記憶廣度、詞彙及理解分測驗顯著高於智力降低組;而智力降低組則在刪除動物分量表得分顯著優於智力增長組。 八、智力增長組在國語和數學學業表現上顯著優於智力降低組。 九、智力增長組在教師版的語文表達與人際互動兩項特質顯著高於智力降低組。 十、WISC-IV的語文理解指數與國語科學業表現呈顯著正相關,且最能預測國語科學業表現的是語文理解指數。 十一、提早入學資優生智力變化的因素除了家庭資源多寡、親子互動時間長短、學校教育之外,還包括注意力與專注力問題、接受測驗時的態度、表達能力等;同儕互動則對智力變化沒有影響。 本研究依據上述結論,針對未來教育及研究提出具體之建議,以供家長、教師、教育行政機關以及研究者參考。
The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between intelligence quotient, academic achievement, and gifted characteristics of the early entry gifted students (EE students). Subjects were 70 EE elementary school students, 48 teachers, and 48 parents in Hsin-Chu City and County during the 2005-2010 academic years. The study proceeded in three stages. In the first stage, the student demographic and test score data on the early entrance examination were obtained from school records. The second stage examined IQ changes during elementary school years, and academic achievement and gifted characteristics of the EE students; all the data were analyzed using SPSS 19. The results showed that the EE students’ IQ scores improved, or declined, or remained stable over time. Semi-structured interviews, therefore, were conducted in the final stage with two parents from the increasing and the other two in the decreasing IQ groups. The main results of this study are as follows: 1.The lowest Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) score of these EE students during preschool period was 128 and the highest one was 155. The FSIQ score for the EE students after entering elementary school ranged from 108 to 161, with the most scores falling between 130 and 144. Among the four indexes of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV), Processing Speed Index scores were the lowest. Similarities, Information (, and Block Design were the highest subtests, while Coding and Cancellation were the lowest subtests. 2.The EE students earned higher scores than 55 percent of students on Elementary School Achievement Test Serials of Language Arts(ATSLA) and Elementary School Achievement Test Serials of Mathematics(ATSM), with a greater number of students with high-level mathematics performance. The increasing IQ group had higher academic achievement scores than the other two groups. 3.The Observing Scale of Gifted Behavior results indicated that the EE students earned higher scores on positive motivation, creative thinking, and emotional expression, but lower scores on sense of humor. The interview results further showed that the increasing IQ group learned faster and had a wide range of interest, longer attention spans, and better reading skills than their counterparts. 4.The EE students who got the FSIQ scores of 133~138 on the WPPSI-R had significantly higher FSIQ scores on the WISC-IV than those students who scored in the range of 128~132. Among the four indexes of WISC-IV, the students who got the FSIQ scores of 133~138 on the WPPSI-R had significantly better Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) than the others.In Arithmetic subtest, boys obtained significantly higher scores than girls and the EE students more than 3 months of age limit achieved higher scores than those within 3 months of age limit. The 1st-3rd graders had significantly higher scores than 4th-6th grade students in Picture Concepts and Letter-Number Sequencing subtests. The EE students who got the FSIQ scores of 133~138 on the WPPSI-R had significantly higher scores than those students who scored in the range of 128~132 in Symbol Search subtest. 5.Students in 4th-6th grade had significantly better mathematical competence than the 1st-3rd grade students. The EE students who got the FSIQ scores of 133~138 on the WPPSI-R had significantly better mathematical competence than those students who scored in the range of 139 above. 6.The EE students in 4th-6th graders had significantly higher scores than the 1st-3rd grade students and students more than 3 months of age limit obtained significantly higher scores than those within 3 months in Teacher Observation Scale of Gifted Behavior. Among nine subtests, girls reported significantly higher scores than boys in the subscales of sensitivity and emotional expression. Boys had significantly higher scores in the subscales of sense of humor. The 4th-6th graders had significantly higher scores in the subscales of analytical thinking, creativity and sense of humor than the 1st-3rd grade students. 7.When compared to the decreasing IQ group, the increased IQ group had significantly better Verbal Comprehensive Index (VCI) and Working Memory Index (WMI) scores and higher scores in the subscales of Similarities, Digit Span, Vocabulary, and Comprehension. On the contrary, the decreasing IQ group obtained significantly higher scores than the increasing IQ group in Cancellation subscale. 8.The increasing IQ group had significantly better general linguistic and mathematical performances than the decreasing IQ group. 9.In Teacher Observation Scale of Gifted Behavior, the increasing IQ students performed significantly better than the decreasing IQ group in the subscales of linguistic expression and interpersonal interaction. 10. A significant positive correlation was found between VCI and linguistic performance in academic contexts. The most predicator variable to linguistic performance was VCI. 11. Factors that influenced the EE students’ change in IQ scores varied, including family resources, parent-child interaction, school education, as well as attention and concentration, attitudes towards testing, and oral expression competency. Peer interaction was found to have no influence on the IQ change. The final chapter concludes with suggestions as a reference for parents, teachers, educational administrators, and researchers.

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提早入學資優生, 追蹤研究, 智力, 學業表現, 資優特質, early entry student, follow-up study, intelligence, academic performance, gifted characteristics

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