童子軍運動在中國的引進與早期發展,1909-1926 The Introduction and Early Development of Scout Movement inChina, 1909-1926

dc.contributor 吳翎君 zh_TW
dc.contributor Wu, Lin-Chun en_US
dc.contributor.author 王冠中 zh_TW
dc.contributor.author Wang, Kuan-Chung en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2022-06-08T02:31:37Z
dc.date.available 2021-07-06
dc.date.available 2022-06-08T02:31:37Z
dc.date.issued 2021
dc.description.abstract 過去討論中國的童子軍運動時,人們往往只記得其在國民黨掌控下,成為黨國體制控制、訓育青少年的一種手段。然而,這並非童子軍運動在中國發展的全貌,童子軍運動自1910年代初通過威海衛租界中英國教育人士的引介,首次踏上中國土地後,其發展其實經歷了多個不同的階段。透過研究童子軍運動在1909年至1926年間的發展,本文希望重新描繪童子軍運動在進入黨國體制時期前的多元面貌。最初,外籍教育工作者首先將童子軍帶入租界,在租界建立起以外僑為主的童子軍團體,其後嚴家麟與康普藉由外僑童子軍的協助,陸續建立起屬於中國人的童子軍。透過建立科層化的童子軍組織,康普所組織的中華童子偵探會曾嘗試主導中國童子軍運動的發展,但隨著越來越多的中國人開始認識到童子軍,不僅童子軍團開始在許多地方出現,完全由中國人組成的童子軍組織也陸續成立。此後,中外童子軍界人士對於童子軍運動主導權的競爭也隨之出現,最終外籍人士逐漸被邊緣化,江蘇省童子軍成為此一時期中國童子軍運動中的中流砥柱。在這個競爭、發展的過程中,中國逐漸發展出具有部分地方特色的規範與訓練內容,代表著童子軍運動在中國的第一次在地化。而且,由於中央政府尚未大力介入,童子軍在此一時期尚能保有高度的自主性,地方多能以其需要自行調整訓練內容,同時也能大致遵循童子軍原初的目標。1924年中國童子軍參與第二次萬國童子軍大會,標誌著早期童子軍發展的巔峰,是此一階段的重要里程碑,不僅反映出江蘇地區童子軍活動的發達,也象徵長期封閉的中國童子軍運動走上國際舞台,拉近中國與國際童子軍發展潮流的距離。代表團成員不僅帶回了寶貴的個人經驗,亦將萬國童子軍大會的決議案帶回中國,通過童子軍組織或報章雜誌向國內的童子軍傳達當時國際童子軍的發展方向,並開始推動組織羅浮童子軍與加強教練員訓練等項目,使中國的童子軍運動重新跟上世界的腳步。本文希望還原了一個具有高度自主性與多元化的童子軍發展時期,呈現早期童子軍活動在中國租界和各地發展的多元樣貌;全然不同於1920年代後期以後國民黨逐漸將童子軍運動納入黨國教育體制,成為政治化活動和趨向軍事化精神的童子軍教育。 zh_TW
dc.description.abstract Previous scholarship has considered the scout movement in China as a way in which the Nationalist regime managed to discipline and control its subjects of teenagers. However, this is not the whole picture of the scout movement in China. The scout movement was introduced to China by some foreign educators in British settlement at Weihaiwei(威海衛) in the early 1910s. By 1926, the development of the scout movement in China had been through several stages. By examining the blooming of the scout movement in China between 1909 to 1926, this research aims to demonstrate the true face of its early-stage development before the stage of party-state system.In the beginning, foreign educators started to run scout troops for immigrant teenagers in the settlement in the early 1910s. A few years later, under the assistance of the alien scout troop in the Shanghai International Settlement, Chia-Lin Yen(嚴家麟) and G. S. F. Kemp started to run their scout troops for Chinese teenagers in Wuhan(武漢) and Shanghai(上海). This was the origin of the Chinese boy scout movement. By establishing a bureaucratic association, the Chinese Boy Scouts Association (run by Kemp) was trying to lead the scout movement in China. However, when more and more Chinese people became known with the scout movement, many scout troops were established in different provinces and cities in China. Meanwhile, many associations of the scout troop were created by the Chinese educators as well. These associations were struggling trying to take over the leadership in the Chinese Boy Scout movement. As a result, the Shanghai County Scouts Association merged the Chinese Boy Scouts Association. Since then, foreigners gradually became marginalized from the Chinese scout movement, and the Jiangsu Province Scouts Association started to play the dominant role in the Chinese scout movement. In this process, the scout movement in China started to develop some codes and courses with local characters, symbolizing the first wave of localization of the Chinese scout movement. Moreover, with lower degree of the central government’s intervention, the Chinese scout troops were still highly independent in this period when they still could change the training methods along with the local needs as well as follow the primitive, core value of the scout movement.In 1924, the Chinese scouts took part in the second World Scout Jamboree, a milestone before it entered the period of party-state system. From this event onward, the Chinese scout movement not only became prospered in Jiangsu but also became more internationalized and connected to the trend of the world scout movement. The delegation not only accumulated valuable experience but also brought the resolution made by the World Scout Conference back to China. Moreover, by promoting the approaches of the world scout movement through the Chinese scout organization and mass media, the Chinese scout movement was able to develop the Rover Scout organization and enhance the training of scout leaders.In short, this thesis intends to reveal the true nature of the early stage of the Chinese scout movement. As the following chapter will demonstrate, its highly independent and pluralistic features were very different from the period after 1926 when the scout movement was closely controlled by the Nationalist regime and became more politicalized and militarized. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship 歷史學系 zh_TW
dc.identifier 60722013L-39496
dc.identifier.uri https://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/thesis/detail/07a0bbc05134ca5b4e5260c4dd3161a8/
dc.identifier.uri http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/handle/20.500.12235/116564
dc.language 中文
dc.subject 中國童子軍運動 zh_TW
dc.subject 中華童子偵探會 zh_TW
dc.subject 江蘇省童子軍聯合會 zh_TW
dc.subject 萬國童子軍大會 zh_TW
dc.subject Boy Scout Movement in China en_US
dc.subject The Chinese Boy Scouts Association en_US
dc.subject The Jiangsu Province Boy Scouts Association en_US
dc.subject World Scout Jamboree en_US
dc.title 童子軍運動在中國的引進與早期發展,1909-1926 zh_TW
dc.title The Introduction and Early Development of Scout Movement inChina, 1909-1926 en_US
dc.type 學術論文
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