國小資源班身心障礙學生社會技巧介入教學之行動研究

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2017

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本行動研究旨在探究普教教師與特教教師合作實施社會技巧課程介入教學過程中,學生社會技巧以及教師專業成長的改變情形。本研究以三位具社會技巧缺損的國小資源班身心障礙學生為研究參與者,先運用訪談題綱、能力指標檢核表等工具,瞭解個案社會技巧缺損情況;再設計認知行為取向的社會技巧課程,並結合合作教學與合作諮詢,與普教教師共同實施社會技巧介入教學;最後透過訪談、觀察和非干擾性測量等三種方式進行蒐集資料。研究結論如下。 壹、普教教師與特教教師合作之行動歷程方面 一、普教教師與特教教師藉由合作諮詢的正式溝通,與社交性的非正式溝通,克服探索、平衡、前進三大行動階段的挑戰,並根據資源班教學與實際類化狀況,反覆修正研究行動,形塑完整的社會技巧介入教學歷程。 二、特教教師在探索期需適時採取主動積極態度,克服合作初期磨合的衝突與隔閡感;並將真實情境觀察之資料,轉為有利資源班課程學習的媒材;最後善用合作教學模式的轉換,與個案共同融入普通班環境。 三、普教教師與特教教師於平衡期,需以全體學生學習利益為優先考量,嘗試互諒互讓,分工合作,共商解決之道;而特教教師也可藉教學地位平衡之際,善用合作教學與資源班課程的循環回饋,加強個案社會技巧的實踐,有效解決個案與同儕間的衝突。 四、普教教師與特教教師於前進期,已具備穩定的合作默契,特教教師除了統整社會技巧課程學習內容,亦退至提供普教教師諮詢的角色;並與普教教師以檢核表、激勵系統,鼓勵個案學習自我監控,同時善用同儕力量,促進衝突的化解與友情的建立;最後亦教導個案如何在他人的惡意下自處、調適,以及自我肯定。 貳、身心障礙學生社會技巧改變情形方面 一、認知行為取向的社會技巧課程,結合合作教學與合作諮詢的社會技巧介入教學,對個案社會技巧的類化有相當的助益,且具有社會效度。 二、社會技巧介入教學對高年級學生的改善成效比對中年級學生佳;且普教教師與特教教師合作情形愈好,個案的進步狀況愈佳。 三、個案社會技巧的轉變為由內至外的成長歷程,大致上可分為「從處己邁向處人的成長初期」,以及「處人與處環境猛進的成長後期」兩大階段。 四、社會技巧介入教學可改善個案八成以上的處己技巧。個案從行動前的「選擇性冷靜」特質,逐步轉為「廣泛性冷靜」表徵,最後能依循「靜、想、警告、求救」步驟處理自我負向情緒與壓力,並辨識他人負向情緒,進一步調整自我言行。 五、社會技巧介入教學可改善個案約七成的處人技巧。個案從行動前「失控孤獨者」的樣貌,邁向「於孤獨裡覓得歸屬,以理性代替失控」的處人表徵;最終有了「於歸屬裡尋獲友誼,以溝通、互動技巧減少衝突」的表現。 六、社會技巧介入教學可改善個案約七成五的處環境技巧。個案從行動前「干擾秩序違規行為」的頻仍表現,轉為「減少干擾秩序並投身課程」之表徵,最後達到了「遵守課堂規範,適切參與課程」的目標。 參、普教教師與特教教師省思與成長方面 一、普教教師獲致了「問題行為處遇」與「課程歷程調整」層面專業知能的成長;此外,也從三位個案正向改變裡,見證了普教教師與特教教師分工合作,對學生類化社會技巧的重要;最後發現社會技巧介入教學對全體師生皆有助益,進而增強了未來與特教教師合作之動機與意願。 二、特教教師獲致了「社會技巧教學」與「教師合作」層面專業知能的成長; 此外,特教教師也發現社會技巧介入教學,的確能讓普通班師生見證個案的改變,進而改觀;最後,有鑒於普教教師與特教教師合作對身心障礙學生類化社會技巧的重要,進一步得到了未來再行動的勇氣。 本研究根據研究結果進一步對未來教學與研究提出建議,期盼未來教學現場能善用普教教師與特教教師的合作力量,以促進身心障礙學生社會技巧的類化,提升學校適應能力。
The purposes of this action research were to explore the learning effects on social skill curriculum for the students with disabilities and the professional growth of the teachers participated in this study. The subjects were three elementary students with disabilities who had social skill deficits and received resource room teaching. Interviews and checklists were administered to find out the subjects’ present social skill abilities first. Then the following teachings were implemented: (1) A cognitive-behavioral social skill curriculum was taught to these three target subjects in the resource room by the special education teacher; and (2) the special education and the general education teachers assisted subjects to generalize the social skills taught at the resource room in their regular classrooms through co-teaching and collaborative consultation. During the whole action research period, the researcher applied interviews, observations, and unobtrusive measures to collect data continuously. The main findings were as follows. 1. The special education and the general education teachers could overcome the challenges of cooperation by keeping formally and informally communications at the exploratory stage, compromising stage, and advancing stage. Furthermore, teachers reported that subjects’ social skills improved and could generalize them in regular settings. 2. At the exploratory stage, the special education teacher provided positive and active attitudes to the general education teachers for solving the conflicts and setting of clear boundaries. While at the compromising stage, both of them compromised and cooperated to solve problems for all students’ learning benefits. At the final advancing stage, the special education teacher faded co-teaching to cooperative consultations gradually. They helped subjects to use self-control, self- adjustment strategies, and arranged some classmates helping subjects to solve interpersonal conflicts and develop friendships. 3. Utilizing comprehensive social skill teachings with cognitive-behavioral social skill curriculum, co-teaching, and collaborative consultation together could promote generalization for all three subjects. Also, the research results had good social validities. 4. Six graders’ learning effects on social skill teachings were greater than those of the fourth graders. In addition, the better the special and regular teachers cooperated, the more progress the students with disabilities had. 5. The social skill teachings could promote more than 80% social skills related to emotional and pressure management, approximately 70% social skills related to interpersonal relationships, and about 75% social skills related to environmental adaptations. 6. The general education teachers acquired professional growth in problem behavior treatment and curricular modifications. They thought that the cooperation between general and special education teachers was very important of social skills’ generalizations for students with disabilities and were more willing to cooperate with special education teachers in the future. 7. The special education teacher acquired professional growth in social skill teachings and teacher cooperation. Also, the researcher found that the social skill teachings brought general education teachers and the subjects’ classmates positive attitudes toward students with disabilities. Finally, some suggestions were made based on the above findings for future teaching and research.

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合作教學, 合作諮詢, 身心障礙學生, 社會技巧介入教學, 資源班, collaborative consultation, co-teaching, resource room, social skill teachings, students with disabilities

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