西夏《易》學初探

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2021-09-??

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國文系
Department of Chinese, NTNU

Abstract

易學在西夏(党項)帝國的傳播與影響至今仍未被整理。隨著黑水城西夏文獻的出土,研究西夏易學的初步條件已經形成。本文為首個有系統地探討西夏易學史的研究,重點是易學的符號及占卜如何融入西夏文化。它顯示易學的理論及實踐滲透醫學、建築、藝術、軍事、政治詞彙、曆法、占卜及世界觀等不同文化層面。西夏人按自己的文化需要及偏好吸納易學。跟不少非漢族群相似,西夏人選擇性採納易學,對占卜、風水、醫學、軍事等實用領域特別感興趣。他們偏重占卜,對《易經》的義理及象數似乎漠不關心。從易學亦可窺見西夏文化的多元化與混種性。此開拓性研究有助加深瞭解中國與西夏的文化交流及易學如何在中國周邊與當地非漢族宗教、文化融合。
The popularization and impact of the Yijing [Classic of Changes] scholarship in Western Xia (the Tangut Empire) remains largely unknown. The unearthing of Tangut documents in Khara-Khoto has paved the way for a preliminary investigation of the Yijing in Western Xia. This article is the first academic study of the Yijing in Western Xia, highlighting the ways that the Yingjing's symbolism and divination were incorporated into Tangut traditions. Yijing-related ideas and practices played a considerable role in different aspects of Tangut culture, such as medicine, architecture, art, military strategy, political terminology, calendar, divination and the perception of the world. The Tangut people adopted elements from the Yijing based on their own cultural needsand preference. Like many other non-Sinic ethnic groups, the Western Xia's reception of the Yijing was selective and the preference for practical values such as divination, geomancy, medicine and the military was salient. The Tangut people were only interested in Yijing divination and paid less attention to its text, images and numbers. The kind of multiculturalism and hybridity that characterize Western Xia culture is also evident in its Yijing scholarship. This pioneering study will shed new light on Song-Western Xia cultural relations and the integration of the Yijing into non-Sinic religions and cultures on China's northwestern borders.

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