G.K. 切斯特頓《布朗神父探案全集》系列中的東方形象塑造

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G. K.切斯特頓創作的偵探小說《布朗神父探案全集》,處在外表精明的偵探和物證推理搭配的偵探小說黃金時代,創造出一個外型平凡的宗教人物式偵探,搭配心證推理的辦案方式,不僅是偵探小說史上的先例,同時也是他個人對19、20世紀歐洲世界由人文、科學甚至神祕主義思想主導社會趨勢的反省跟質疑。 而這種反省跟質疑也反映在他對東方的評論,以及小說中顯現的東方形象。切斯特頓的東方經驗雖然最遠只到埃及,但他既是記者、時事評論家以及作家,使他在19、20世紀這一個歐洲帝國主義下的東方話語權高漲的年代,不論在現實生活的評論中對東方的評述,或是虛構世界中運用東方達到的故事效果,東方也都能成為他信仰傳達話語的工具。在現實生活中,他極力反對歐洲人對東方自中世紀就存有的神祕論調,鼓吹真正神秘的、難以理解的是存在西方的基督信仰;在小說中,他經常在情節發展中首先運用東方使案件達到神秘的效果,目的是憑藉布朗神父的智慧和那從信仰上明白人類本性的破案,最終消解東方的神祕性。他對東方話語的運用,與同時代強調科學、人文的歐洲人不同,但面對東方,他那認為東方人亟需福音的心態,又與歐洲信仰的殖民心態相近。 本文回顧歐洲從13世紀以降到20世紀,歐洲的東方形象差異跟轉變,指出生活在19跨20世紀的切斯特頓,小說中提到的東方形象,如:人物樣貌、傳說詛咒、象徵物等等,與東方的歷史傳說做對照,尋找切斯特頓在文本外,可與東方的歷史訊息相對應的部分為何。接著以結構主義敘事學的分析方式,探討創作時與社會切割開的切斯特頓,如何藉由東方的元素影響案件,或是結合他自己的東方觀看和經驗來想像、創造及呈現出的東方人物、時空、神秘感等等,循序漸進地解構東方。 最後可以看出,切斯特頓對東方的話語權,展現在他文本外真實生活對「不神秘的東方」的鼓吹,以及在小說創作文本內的虛構東方,和文本自足後切斯特頓試圖隱含在文本後,交由不可靠敘述者講述故事,並對其隱含讀者傳達信仰真相的期待感。東方在切斯特頓兩種情境下的存在,真實的反映了薩依德「東方主義」對帝國主義東方話語權的真相,亦即東方不是一個實體,而是傳說、觀看加上逐步成熟的意識形態下集體記憶的產物。
The detective novel series of The Complete of Father Brown was written by G. K. Chesterton the man who created a normal appearance religionary detective as an inference-maker by mentally inference was a pioneer in the golden age of detective novels which usually been cast by an astute detective with rational and scientific inference process. What he also wanted to present is the reflection and query of 19 and 20 century people who followed thoughts of humanism, scientism and mysticism. This kind of reflection and query also shows in his East images creation in The Complete of Father Brown series. Although only to Egypt is the farthest place of Chesterton’s East experiences. As a reporter, society critic, and writer he still can use the concept of the East as a “discourse” to transmitting his belief by introducing and critics of East event and by using elements of East in fiction creations to reach story effects. In introducing and critics articles, he extremely against the mystical rumor of East since the Middle Ages and try to persuading that Christian belief is the real mysticism; in fiction, he try to make mystical effects by using elements of East at beginning for the purpose of destructing East mysticism through the wisdom and the belief of the truth of Father Brown in the end. The way he describing the East is different from Scientism or Humanism in the same ages of Europeans. However, he still shows the thoughts of colonist in religion choosing.This essay tried to look back to 13 to 20 century the East images transitions of Europe first, and then point out the history legends, myths, and culture of the East countries in order to know the connection between Chesterton’s fiction and real East history culture might be. Third, through the theory of Structuralism Narrotology analyzing of East images such as characters, legends, curses, symbolizations...and so on in The Complete of Father Brown by Chesterton lived in 19 to 20 century to find out how Chesterton combined his Gazing and experiences of East and destructed the rumor of East mystical in the novels gradually. We can see Chesterton’s East discourse shows in two ways: By introducing and critics of East event as an “author” out of text, and by using elements of East in fiction creations to reach story effects in the text as a “hiding author” who let unreliable narrator tell stories and expected his hiding readers could understand his transmitting of truth of belief. These two ways of East discourse by Chesterton demonstrated the Orientalism which been bring up by Said who seen the fact of East discourse that East is not a concrete object but a product of collective memory made by legend, rumor, gazing and fertile ground of ideology.



G. K.切斯特頓, 偵探小說, 東方形象, 敘事學, 話語, G.K. Chesterton, detective novels, East images, Narrotology, discourse