園藝治療活動對自閉症幼兒效益之個案研究

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2010

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本研究主要目的在提供學齡前自閉症幼兒園藝治療(horticulture therapy)活動,以檢驗園藝治療的療效。三到六歲期間為孩童腦部發展最為頻繁的時候,在這段期間接受早期療育,能及早讓學齡前自閉症幼兒習得適應社會能力,以適應日常生活環境,並在進入國小後能適應學校生活。研究對象為某發展中心內之一名自閉症幼兒,實驗期間為2008年12月至2009年4月,每週一單元,並在單元進行期間執行三次的觀察,每單元共四次;單元結束,依據課程設計活動評量表的評估結果,給予評量。本研究採用前後測的觀察設計,根據遊憩治療APIE的處理程序,規劃設計園藝治療課程,並以「願意與人溝通」以及「語言表達能力」兩項社會行為能力做為治療目標;以施測前的觀察評估作為其行為基準,並在園藝治療計畫執行結束後和前測結果比較印證。研究過程運用觀察記錄,與家長及輔導老師的訪談等方法,收集受試兒童的變化。研究結果發現,透過植物的媒介,提供感官刺激,包括視覺(顏色)、聽覺(聲音)、嗅覺(味道)、味覺(食用)、觸覺,此五感是園藝治療的特長。藉由植物所提供之不同刺激的課程訓練,使自閉兒在認知、行為、社會及語言能力等方面,有顯著進步,也願意開口說話,與人溝通交流分享成果。因此顯示園藝治療活動,對自閉症幼兒具有促進參與社會行為能力的治療效益。
The major purpose of this study is to provide treatment for preschool children with autism by horticulture therapy and to evaluate the treatment effect of horticultural therapy. children have the most frequent brain development in the age period of three to six. Therefore, if patients can have the treatment in this age period, they will learn the ability to adapt themselves to the society, their daily living environment and elementary school living before it is too late. The subject of this study is a child with autism at a development center. The experiment implemented once a week as a unit of observation from December 2008 to April 2009. Three observations had been implemented .In each unit experiment period. When each unit was completed, a total unit evaluation was given according to results from activity evaluation from of curriculum design. The horticulture therapy course of treatment design is based on therapeutic recreation APIE processing program with pretest and posttest. “Willing to participate in public” and “language expression abilit y” these two social behavior abilities are set as goals for the therapy to achieve. Children’s behavior observation and evaluation before any test were used to set as the criterion for the experiment. The final result of the horticulture therapy was compared with the pretest result to obtain the finding. Recording observation, interviews with parents and counselors were managed through the whole research process to collect children’s changes. The findings indicate that children with autism are edified in perception, behavior, and society and language ability and with great improvement. They are also willing to talk and share their findings with each other. Thus, horticulture therapy reveals its treatment effect on stimulating children with autism to have the ability of participating social behavior.

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園藝治療, 早期療育, 學齡前自閉症幼童, Horticultural therapy, Early intervention, Preschool Children with Autism

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