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An Analysis of Intersemiotic Translation from the Perspective of A Theory of Adaptation: A Case Study of Movie “12 Strong” And Its Original Text Horse Soldiers
A Theory of Adaptation
war on terror
作家道格·史坦頓（Doug Stanton）的Horse Soldiers一書為讀者詳細講述並還原了911事件後、全球反恐戰爭初期當中一段不為世人所知悉的故事，對於瞭解這段重要歷史是非常有價值的資訊。本研究因此以其電影改編版本《12猛漢》（12 Strong）為切入點，輔以學者赫全（Linda Hutcheon）跳脫舊有理論框架且具有新意的《改編理論》（A Theory of Adaptation）為依據，採用文本和內容分析的方法，透過數個不同主題及面向的例子，多角度地去探究原著與電影改編分別如何呈現當時候的美國–阿富汗關係，以及從文字符號轉換至多媒體符號的改編過程中，最終的呈現結果經歷了哪些得與失。經過針對原著及電影內容的深入探究，本研究認為《12猛漢》作為一部劇情電影，主旨簡明清楚、邏輯清晰、結構也尚稱嚴謹；然而作為一改編作品，雖然成功捕捉且再現了原著的精神和精髓，但是因著改編者與原作者在理念與聚焦重心等層面上的不同，也導致了兩個版本在敘事深度、廣度上出現了顯著的差異。至於改編過程所反映的得失部份，筆者認為雖然電影在內容上勢必會較原作來得更為精簡、濃縮，但同時卻也憑藉影視媒材自身的優勢，例如影像、聲音、攝影技巧、演員演技⋯⋯等，達到了增補的效果，最後的呈現結果也並不遜於原著的文字描繪。|
To this day, the general evaluation criteria for translation works and adaptation works are still trapped in the dilemma of fidelity and the concept of equivalence. Over the years, however, with the continuous development and progress of research concepts and methods, scholars and the academic community started to abandon the benchmark of fidelity for translations and adaptations. Also, with the concept of “texts” being introduced and the extension of its definition, coupled with the newly emerged notion of “intertextuality,” they all challenged and dismantled the hierarchy of the “original” and the “copy”. In view of the extreme similarity between two fields in both essence and dilemma, the juxtaposition of translation studies and adaptation studies has become a new trend and direction of academic research. Doug Stanton’s Horse Soldiers tells a story that was not known to the world during the early days of the global war on terror. This dramatic account contains valuable information for anyone who wants to understand and research this vital part of history. Stanton’s book was subsequently turned into the film 12 Strong. This thesis intends to explore how the original work and the film adaptation respectively presented the U.S.-Afghanistan relations at that time. A text-analysis approach will be adopted to closely analyze the gains and losses during the transformative process, also to identify whether the transformation from words to multitrack medium corresponds to the ideas proposed in Linda Hutcheon’s A Theory of Adaptation (2006). In sum, the thesis discovers that as a war drama film, 12 Strong is a well-structured work with clear, concise logic and subject matter. But as an adaptation work, however, although it managed to capture and reproduce the spirit/essence of the original text, the obvious difference between the adaptor and the author in terms of story/plot concept and focus also lead to significant differences in the breadth and depth of the narrative. As for the gains and losses during the transformative process, the thesis believes that although the content is inevitably condensed and concentrated in the adaptive process, the movie endeavors to create equivalence by exerting medium advantages such as images, sounds, photography, and acting skills.
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