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Title: 清中期以後的旗務政策(1780-1911)
The Banner Affairs Policies since the Mid-Qing (1780-1911)
Authors: 莊吉發
Liu Shih-Shun
Keywords: 在地化
and speaking Manchu
livelihood of bannermen
gradual adoption of Han manners
separation of Manchu and Han
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: 以往的清史研究大都站在漢民族的立場來討論問題,「漢族中心」的史觀相當明顯。在此情況下,與旗人切身相關的八旗議題,便較不受學界注意。清朝統治者強調「八旗為國家根本」,給予旗人種種優厚待遇,成為有清一代較為特殊的一群人。然而,過度保護,卻導致八旗子弟缺乏危機意識,只圖安逸,不思上進,進而產生諸多問題。為了解決這些問題,滿洲統治者制定了許多相關政策與措施。   惟在眾多旗務當中,以旗人的語言、戰技、生計以及漸染漢習最受滿洲統治者的重視。降及清末,又有消彌旗民畛域以及改革八旗教育等議題。滿洲統治者為了解決這些問題,制定諸多旗務政策,惟這些政策的宗旨,本應在保護旗人,並透過各種方法維持旗人與民人之間的界線。   然而,就這些政策的實際執行結果來看,當統治者無能力繼續維持全體旗人的特殊性時,只好從統治集團外圍成員著手,一步步消除八旗所享有的特權,使旗人逐步走向齊民化。不過,終清一代,齊民化從來就不是統治者的本意,即便在清末出現了較大規模的旗務改革與破除滿漢畛域,其用意皆在於延緩漢人的反動,以穩固政權,故僅是一種統治手段。只有辛亥革命爆發,滿洲政權瓦解之後,當旗人消除其心中那種民族優越意識之時,才有可能真正徹底的齊民化。
In the past, studies of Qing history generally discussed problems from the perspective of the Han people. The sinocentric bias of historiography was quite obvious. Under such circumstances, the Eight Banners, a topic concerning the “people of the banners”, did not attract much scholarly attention. The Qing rulers emphasized that “the Eight Banners are the foundation of the nation”, and granted the bannermen various privileges, turning them into a special group of the Qing dynasty. However, excessive protection led to a lack of crisis awareness among the members of the Eight Banners. Preoccupied with preserving a comfortable lifestyle, they failed to strive for progress, resulting in many problems. In order to solve these problems, the Manchu rulers adopted numerous policies and measures. Manchu language ability, martial skills, livelihood, and the gradual adoption of Han manners were those issues among the numerous banner affairs which received most attention from the Manchu rulers. Towards the end of the Qing dynasty, there emerged issues like the termination of the distinct status of bannermen and a reform of eight banners education. The Manchu rulers tried to solve these problems by adopting various banner policies, always with the general objective of protecting the bannermen and preserving the separation between them and the Han population. However, if we look at the results of the actual implementation of these policies, we find that the rulers, when they were no longer able to maintain the distinct status of all of the bannermen, decided to begin with the members at the periphery of the ruling class, and step by step revoked all of their privileges, eventually turning the bannermen into common people. But the Qing rulers never had the intention of equal social status of Manchu and Han. Even during the late Qing, when major reforms of banner affairs began and the separation of bannermen and Han was lifted, the real intention behind these measures was to defer Han reactions and stabilize Manchu rule. Only after the 1911 revolution, when the Manchu political order had collapsed, and their consciousness of ethnic superiority declined, the bannermen could really become common people.
Other Identifiers: GN0697220019
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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