工作鑲嵌對員工離職意圖及行為之影響探討~一個傳統產業的個案公司分析 Perspective of job embeddedness to the turnover intention and behavior :A case study of corporation in the traditional industry

Date
2015
Authors
廖秋惠
Liaw, Chiou-Huey
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Abstract
本研究依循工作鑲嵌(Job Embeddedness)概念,探討工作與人際互動因素對組織中員工離職意圖及行為的影響。研究人為什麼想留在組織而不選擇離開,從留職的概念出發,進一步探討員工對組織產生依賴的因素,組織如何改善不利條件,降低員工的離職意圖與行為,讓組織可以對離職採取更主動積極的管理辦法,而非被動的應變措施而已,期望運用工作鑲嵌架構能發展出兼具組織優勢及員工喜好之留才策略。 本研究採用個案研究法,主要針對個案公司進行離職狀況的歷史資料分析與深度訪談,為了更瞭解個案公司員工離職意圖或行為產生背後的原因,除了訪談離職員工了解公司留不住員工的主因外,亦訪談在職員工,了解員工選擇留在公司的原因,以及當產生離職意圖時為何未轉變為離職行為的原因,故訪談對象包含在職、已離職及離職後再次回任之員工。 訪談結果發現,個案公司員工的離(留)職成因在連結面向的主要因素為個人職涯發展、主管管理風格及企業文化與經營理念;在適配面向的主要因素為團隊氛圍及人際互動機制;在犧牲面向的主要因素為工作與生活平衡、不錯的報酬及和諧的人際關係。綜合個案公司的離職狀況分析與訪談研究所得,發現傳統製造產業如果從員工任職開始,就在「適配」的面向多下點功夫,之後「犧牲」與「連結」面向便能發揮留職作用。本研究的結果證實以工作鑲嵌理論來探討員工離(留)職成因不僅具有學術上的價值,更有豐富的實務意涵,足以提供經營管理者制訂相關決策、改善人力資源管理之依據。
Based on the concept of job embeddedness, this study is to investigate how the job and interpersonal relationship affect employee’s turnover intention and behavior. To answer why people choose staying in the organization rather than leaving, this study explore the factors which let employees rely on their organization, and figure out the solutions for organizations to decrease employee’s turnover intention and behavior. This study expects that using job embeddedness can develop a good retention strategy which is well-received to both employers and employees. With a case study, we focus on the historical data analysis and depth interview of a company’s turnover situation. To know more about the reason why the employees want to leave, not only interviewed the employees who resigned, but also interviewed the active employees to figure out the reason why the employees chose to stay and why didn’t resign when they had turnover intention. Therefore, the interviewees include existing employees, leaving employees, and returning employees. Results of the interview reveal that, in terms of link facet of job embededness, staff leaving or staying is caused by the factors like career development; supervisor management style; company culture and theory of business. The main factors in fit side are atmosphere of teamwork and interpersonal relationship. Factors from perspective of “sacrifice” are the work-life balance, good pay, and harmonious interpersonal relationship. According to turnover status analysis and interview research, we found that if traditional industry companies can devote more time and energy on “fit” when employees start to take office, then “sacrifice” and “link” can do work on retaining employees. The results of this research proved that discussing reasons about employees’ turnover with “job embeddedness” is not merely a worthy theory, but more practical meaning. Implications of the study can provide business managers a constructive way to make decisions of turnover management and improve the practices of human resource management.
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Keywords
工作鑲嵌, 離職意圖, 離職行為, 傳統產業, Job Embeddedness, Turnover Intention, Turnover Behavior, Traditional Industry
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